February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 7, JULY 1995
"A Model Simulation of Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols in the
Stratosphere," J. Zhao (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822),
R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D4), 7315-7328,
Apr. 20, 1995.
Uses a one-dimensional, time-dependent model to study the chemical,
microphysical and radiative properties of volcanic aerosols. The model includes
gas-phase sulfur photochemistry, gas-to-particle conversion of sulfur, and
microphysics of sulfate aerosols. The persistent aerosols can produce
significant anomalies in the radiation field, with important climatic
consequences. The large enhancement in aerosol surface area can result in
measurable global stratospheric ozone depletion.
"First Results from POAM II: The Dissipation of the 1993 Antarctic
Ozone Hole," R.M. Bevilacqua (Naval Res. Lab., Code 7227, Washington DC
20375), K.W. Hoppel et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), 909-912,
Apr. 15, 1995.
Describes program POAM II (Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement), a
space-borne instrument program that used the solar occultation technique to
measure properties of the stratosphere and mesosphere. Data for 1993 show that
the Antarctic ozone hole dissipates from the top downward, and support the
hypothesis that the Antarctic vortex is an effective containment vessel.
"Recent Trends in Ozone in the Upper Stratosphere: Implications for
Chlorine Chemistry," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), C.H.
Jackman, E.L. Fleming, ibid., 22(7), 843-846, Apr. 1, 1995.
Compares trends based on 15 years of satellite data with those based on
model estimates. The satellite data suggest a decrease of 10-25% per decade in
the annual amplitude of ozone at 2 mb between 40° and 60° in both hemispheres,
with a relatively larger interannual variability in the Northern Hemisphere.
These values are in general agreement with model predictions and provide
additional support in favor of chlorine-induced changes in ozone in the upper
"TOMS Total Ozone Trends in Potential Vorticity Coordinates,"
W.J. Randel (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), F. Wu, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
22(6), 683-686, Mar. 15, 1995.
Remaps the TOMS data into potential vorticity coordinates and calculates
trends, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar
vortices. Large regions of ozone loss are seen outside of the vortex in both
hemispheres. Midlatitude losses in the Northern Hemisphere during winter-spring
do not seem to result solely from the transport of ozone-depleted air from
inside to outside the vortex.
"Evolution of Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone and the Polar Vortex
During Winter," G.L. Manney (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr.,
Pasadena CA 91109), L. Froidevaux et al., J. Geophys. Res., 100(D2),
2953-2972, Feb. 20, 1995.
Describes the evolution of polar ozone for the Northern Hemisphere (NH)
winters of 1991/1992, 1992/1993, and 1993/1994, and the Southern Hemisphere
winters of 1992 and 1993. Interannual and interhemispheric variability in polar
ozone evolution are closely related to differences in the polar vortex and to
the frequency, duration and strength of stratospheric sudden warmings. Previous
evidence has shown chemical ozone destruction in the 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 NH
winters; this study suggests some chemical destruction in late February and
early March 1994.
"Arctic Chlorine Monoxide Observations During Spring 1993 over
Thule, Greenland, and Implications for Ozone Depletion," D.T. Shindell
(Phys. Dept., State Univ. New York, Stony Brook NY 11794), J.M. Reeves et al.,
J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), 25,697-25,704, Dec. 20, 1994.
Measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra suggest that
hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely
to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude
Northern Hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.
"The Chemical and Radiative Effects of the Mount Pinatubo Eruption,"
D.E. Kinnison (Lawrence-Livermore Natl. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), K.E.
Grant et al., ibid., 25,705-25,731.
Used a 2D, zonally averaged, chemical radiative transport model, integrated
with time from before the eruption through December 1993, to compare the effects
of heterogeneous chemical processing on sulfate aerosols with those of aerosol
heating (modifying either circulation or temperature). Compares various
scenarios with observations.
"Further Studies on Possible Volcanic Signal to the Ozone Layer,"
C.S. Zerefos (Phys. Dept., C.B. 149, Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki 54006,
Greece), K. Tourpali, A.F. Bais, ibid., 25,741-25,746.
Calculates the spatial and temporal distribution of monthly mean residuals
of the global ozone field following the eruptions of El Chichon and Pinatubo,
after having removed the components of known oscillations from the monthly mean
total ozone records. The residuals include a possible volcanic signal whose
amplitude agrees somewhat with model calculations. Results show no ozone
deficiency over the Southern Hemisphere following El Chichon due to the
prevailing winds in the lower stratosphere.
"The 1991 WMO International Ozonesonde Intercomparison at Vanscoy,
Canada," J.B. Kerr (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON
M3H 5T4, Can.), H. Fast et al., Atmos.-Ocean, 32(4), 685-716,
The relative sensitivity to tropospheric ozone for different sonde types
appears to have changed with time, and this should be considered when drawing
conclusions regarding trends in tropospheric ozone.
The following articles were previously summarized in GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE DIGEST under other categories.
"Ozone Trends Deduced from Combined Nimbus 7 SBUV and NOAA 11 SBUV/2
Data," S.M. Hollandsworth (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R.D. McPeters
et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), 905-908, Apr. 15, 1995.
Extends the Nimbus-7 SBUV measurements of global ozone (Nov. 1978-June 1990)
through June 1994 using measurements from the NOAA-11 SBUV/2. In the tropical
middle stratosphere and in the upper stratosphere at mid-latitudes, trends
through June 1994 are 1.5-2% per decade less negative than through June 1990. In
the lower stratosphere, trends are nearly 1.5% per decade more negative in the
Southern Hemisphere tropical regions, but are relatively unchanged elsewhere.
"Atmospheric Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) from Agricultural Soil
Fumigations," K. Yagi (Natl. Inst. Agro-Environ. Sci., Tsukuba, Ibaraki
305, Japan), J. Williams et al., Science, 267(5206), 1979-1981,
Mar. 31, 1995.
After seven days of field fumigation, 34% of the applied methyl bromide had
escaped into the atmosphere. Comparison with an earlier experiment, in which the
amount of escape was greater, showed that higher soil pH, organic content and
moisture, and deeper, more uniform injection of methyl bromide may in
combination reduce the escape.
"Interhemispheric Differences in Polar Stratospheric HNO3, H2O, ClO,
and O3," M.L. Santee (Jet Propulsion Lab., MS 183-701, 4800 Oak Grove Dr.,
Pasadena CA 91109), W.G. Read et al., Science, 267(5199),
849-852, Feb. 10, 1995.
Measurements of these substances were obtained over complete annual cycles
by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Arctic
O3 depletion was substantially smaller than in the Antarctic. A major factor
currently limiting the formation of an Arctic ozone hole is lack of
denitrification in the northern polar vortex. Future cooling of the lower
stratosphere could lead to more intense denitrification there.
"Ozone Profiles at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, During the Spring of
1993; Record Low Ozone Season," B.J. Johnson (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler, R. Zhao, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
22(3), 183-186, Feb. 1, 1995.
Total column ozone declined by 55% from an initial 275 Dobson Units on Aug.
30, to a minimum of 130 ± 7 DU on Oct. 2. Probable causes of this record
low ozone concentration, based on balloon-borne observations at McMurdo Station
include: the presence of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol; a colder than normal stratosphere
over McMurdo; and a relatively stable polar vortex which delayed intrusion of
high levels of ozone from outside its wall.
"Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone: An Analysis of
Ozonesonde Data," J.A. Logan (Dept. Earth & Planetary Sci., Harvard
Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12),
25,553-25,585, Dec. 20, 1994.
Presents an analysis of trends since 1970 and discusses the quality of the
data and inconsistencies among data records.
"Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials of CF3I," S.
Solomon (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.B. Burkholder et
al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D10), 20,929-20,935, Oct. 20, 1994.
Laboratory data used with a photochemical model showed that the lifetime of
CF3I in the sunlit atmosphere is less than a day. Any iodine that reaches the
stratosphere will be effective for ozone destruction, but the short lifetime
limits transport to the stratosphere. Neither the ozone depletion potential nor
the global warming potential represents a significant obstacle to CF3I use as a
"Secular Trend and Seasonal Variability of the Column Abundance of
N2O Above the Jungfraujoch Station Determined from IR Solar Spectra," R.
Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5 Ave. Cointe, B-4000 Liège,
Belgium), D.H. Ehhalt et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8),
16,745-16,756, Aug. 20, 1994.
The exponential rate of increase for 1951-1984 was estimsted to be 0.23 ±
0.04% per yr (1Õ), substantially lower than for the 1984-1992 period. The
preindustrial levels of N2O continued until 1951 with most of the increase in
atmospheric N2O occurring thereafter.
Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(10), May 15,
"The Latitudinal Distribution (50° N-50° S) of NO2 and O3 in
October/November 1990," K. Kreher (Inst. Umweltphys., Univ. Heidelberg,
69120 Heidelberg, Ger.), M. Fiedler et al., 1217-1220.
"Efficiency of Formation of CH3O in the Reaction of CH3O2 with ClO,"
P. Biggs (Phys. Chem. Lab., S. Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK), C.E. Canosa-Mas
et al., 1221-1224,
"Isentropic Mixing in the Arctic Stratosphere During the 1992-1993 and
1993-1994 Winters," S.P. Dahlberg (Dept. Meteor., Texas A&M Univ.,
College Sta. TX 77843), K.P. Bowman, 1237-1240.
"Ozone and NO2 Air-Mass Factors for Zenith-Sky Spectrometers:
Intercomparison of Calculations with Different Radiative Transfer Models,"
A. Sarkissian (BAS, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), H.K. Roscoe et al.,
ibid., 22(9), 1113-1116, May 1, 1995.
Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D4), Apr. 20,
"Impact of Aerosols and Clouds on the Troposphere and Stratosphere
Radiation Field with Application to Twilight Photochemistry at 20 km," D.E.
Anderson (Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel MD 20723), R.
DeMajistre, S.A. Lloyd, 7135-7145.
"Solubility of HBr in Sulfuric Acid at Stratospheric Temperatures,"
L.R. Williams (Molecular Phys. Lab., SRI Intl., Menlo Park CA 94025), D.M.
Golden, D.L. Huestis, 7329-7335.
"The Annual Cycle of Stratospheric Water Vapor in a General Circulation
Model," P.W. Mote (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195),
Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), Apr. 15,
"Do Stratospheric Aerosol Droplets Freeze Above the Ice Frost Point?"
T. Koop (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-55020 Mainz, Ger.), U.M. Biermann et
"Nitric Acid Adsorption on Ice: A Preliminary Study," S.K. Laird
(Rocky Mtn. Exp. Sta., USDA For. Serv., Fort Collins CO 80526), R.A. Sommerfeld,
"Numerical Modeling of Tracer Transport Within and Out of the Lower
Tropospheric Arctic Region," C.-Y.J. Kao (Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos
NM 87545), S. Barr et al., 941-944.
Five items from ibid., 22(7), Apr. 1, 1995:
"UARS MLS Observations of Lower Stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and
1993-94 Arctic Winter Vortices," J.W. Waters (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak
Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), G.L. Manney et al., 823-826.
"The Reaction O(3P) + HOBr: Temperature Dependence of the Rate Constant
and Importance of the Reaction as an HOBr Stratospheric Loss Process," F.L.
Nesbitt (Lab. Extraterres. Phys., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P.S. Monks
et al., 827-830.
"In situ Measurements of BrO During AASE II," L.M.
Avallone (Earth Sys. Sci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), D.W. Toohey et al.,
"Balloon-Borne Observations of Mid-Latitude Hydrofluoric Acid," B.
Sen (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), G.C. Toon et
"Filamentation and Layering of an Idealized Tracer by Observed Winds in
the Lower Stratosphere," Y. Orsolini (Ctr. Natl. Recherches Météor.,
31057 Toulouse Cedex, France), P. Simon, D. Cariolle, 839-842.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D3), Mar. 20, 1995:
"An Analysis of the Antarctic Halogen Occultation Experiment Trace Gas
Observations," M.R. Schoeberl (Atmos. Chem. & Dynamics Branch,
NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M. Luo, J.E. Rosenfield, 5159-5172.
"Origin of Condensation Nuclei in the Springtime Polar Stratosphere,"
J. Zhao (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822), O.B. Toon, R.P. Turco,
"Stratospheric OClO Measurements as a Poor Quantitative Indicator of
Chlorine Activation," J. Sessler (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge,
Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), M.P. Chipperfield et al., Geophys.
Res. Lett., 22(6), 687-690, Mar. 15, 1995.
"The Reaction of ClONO2 with Submicrometer Sulfuric Acid Aerosol,"
D.R. Hanson, E.R. Lovejoy (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303),
Science, 267(5202), Mar. 3, 1995.
"Ground-Based Remote Sensing of the Decay of the Pinatubo Eruption
Cloud at Three Northern Hemisphere Sites," H. Jäger (Fraunhofer Inst.
Atmos. Environ. Res., D-82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Ger.), O. Uchino et al.,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(5), 607-610, Mar. 1, 1995.
Nine items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D2), Feb. 20, 1995:
"Meteor 3/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Observations of the 1993
Ozone Hole," J.R. Herman (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771),
P.A. Newman et al., 2973-2983.
"Calibration and Postlaunch Performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS
Instrument," G. Jaross (Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt MD 20770), A. Krueger
et al., 2985-2995.
"Application of the Langley Plot Method to the Calibration of the Solar
Backscattered Ultraviolet Instrument on the Nimbus 7 Satellite," P.K.
Bhartia (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), S. Taylor et al., 2997-3004.
"Ground-Based Microwave Monitoring of Middle Atmosphere Ozone:
Comparison to Lidar and Stratospheric and Gas Experiment II Satellite
Observations," J.J. Tsou (Lockheed Eng. & Sci. Co., Hampton VA 23681),
B.J. Connor et al., 3005-3016.
"Toward Optimizing Brewer Zenith Sky Total Ozone Measurements at the
Italian Stations of Rome and Ispra," N.J. Muthama (Meteor. Dept., Univ.
Nairobi, POB 30197, Kenya), U. Scimia et al., 3017-3022.
"Stratospheric ClO Profiles from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, Spring
1992," L.K. Emmons (Dept. Atmos., Oceanic & Space Sci., Univ..
Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), D.T. Shindell et al., 3049-3055.
"Estimates of Total Organic and Inorganic Chlorine in the Lower
Stratosphere from in situ and Flask Measurements During AASE II,"
E.L Woodbridge (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.W. Elkins
et al., 3057-3064.
"Smithsonian Stratospheric Far-Infrared Spectrometer and Data Reduction
System," D.G. Johnson (Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ., 60 Garden St.,
Cambridge MA 02138), K.W. Jucks et al., 3091-3106.
"On the Accuracy of TOVS Temperature Fields in an Arctic Case Study,"
F. Loechner (DLR, Inst. Atmos. Phys., POB 1116 Oberpfaffenhofen, 82230 Wessling,
Ger.), R. Buell, 3201-3211.
"Heterogeneous Chemistry of Bromine Species in Sulfuric Acid Under
Stratospheric Conditions," D.R. Hanson (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303), A.R. Ravishankara, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(4),
385-388, Feb. 15, 1995.
Three items from ibid., 22(3), Feb. 1, 1995:
"Effect of Stratospheric Aerosol on Ozone Profile from BUV
Measurements," O. Torres (Hughes STX Corp., 7701 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt
MD 20770), P.K. Bhartia, 235-238.
"Vapour Pressures of H2SO4/HNO3/HCl/HBr/H2O Solutions to Low
Stratospheric Temperatures," B. Luo (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060,
D-55020 Mainz, Ger.), K.S. Carslaw et al., 247-250.
"Interaction of HCl with Crystalline and Amorphous Ice: Implications
for the Mechanisms of Ice-Catalyzed Reactions," J.D. Graham (Dept. Chem.,
Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), J.T. Roberts, 251-254.
Five items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D1), Jan. 20, 1995:
"Aerosol Effects and Corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment,"
M.E. Hervig (Dept. Atmos. Sci.. Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), J.M. Russell
III et al., 1067-1079.
"Evaluation of the Effects of Mount Pinatubo Aerosol on Differential
Absorption Lidar Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone," W. Steinbrecht
(Meteor. Observ., A. Schweiger Weg 10, D-82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Ger.), A.I.
"Numerical Simulation of Global Variations of Temperature, Ozone, and
Trace Species in the Stratosphere," A.K. Smith (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
"Calibration of the NOAA 11 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2)
Ozone Data Set from 1989 to 1993 Using In-Flight Calibration Data and SSBUV,"
E. Hilsenrath (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R.P. Cebula et al., 1351-1366.
"Phase Equilibria of H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl Hydrates and the Composition
of Polar Stratospheric Clouds," P.J. Wooldridge (Dept. Earth, Atmos. &
Planetary Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), R. Zhang, M.J.
"Metastable Phases in Polar Stratospheric Aerosols," L.E. Fox
(Div. Appl. Sci., Harvard Univ., 29 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), D.R.
Worsnop et al., Science, 267(5196), 351-355, Jan. 20, 1995.
Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(1), Jan. 1,
"Seasonal Variation of Atmospheric Nitric Acid over the South Pole in
1992," R. Van Allen (Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), X. Liu,
F.J. Murcray, 49-52.
"Total Atmospheric Ozone Determined from Spectral Measurements of
Direct Solar UV Irradiance," M. Huber (Inst. Med. Phys., Muellerstr. 44,
A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria), M. Blumthaler et al., 53-56.
"Spectral Analysis of Stratospheric Field Variables," Ø.E. Rögnvaldsson
(Nordita, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark), G.G. Bjarnason, 61-64.
Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), Dec. 20,
"Infrared Optical Constants of H2O Ice, Amorphous Nitric Acid
Solutions, and Nitric Acid Hydrates," O.B. Toon (Earth Sys. Sci.,
NASA-Ames, Moffett Field CA 94035), M.A. Tolbert et al., 25,631-25,654.
"Real Refractive Indices of Infrared-Characterized Nitric-Acid/Ice
Films: Implications for Optical Measurements of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,"
A.M. Middlebrook (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), B.S. Berland et al.,
"Heterogeneous Reactions in a Stratospheric Box Model: A Sensitivity
Study," M.Y. Danilin (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr.,
Cambridge MA 02139), J.C. McConnell, 25,681-25,696.
"Correlation of Ozone Loss with the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols,"
T.J. McGee (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P. Newman et al.,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(25), 2801-2804, Dec. 15, 1994.
Five items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), Nov. 20, 1994:
"Kinetics of the Reactions of HBr with O3 and HO2: The Yield of HBr
from HO2 + BrO," A. Mellouki (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), R.K. Talukdar, C.J. Howard, 22,949-22,954.
"Temperature Dependent Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Cross Sections of
NO2 and N2O4: Low-Temperature Measurements of the Equilibrium Constant for 2NO2
« N2O4," M.H. Harwood (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield
Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), R.L. Jones, 22,955-22,964.
"Effect of the HITRAN 92 Spectral Data on the Retrieval of NO2 Mixing
Ratios from Nimbus 7 LIMS," E.E. Remsberg (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23665), P.P. Bhatt et al., 22,965-22,973.
"Accuracy of Total Ozone Retrieval from NOAA SBUV/2 Measurements:
Impact of Instrument Performance," Z. Ahmad (Sci. & Data Sys., Inc.,
16509 Copperstrip Lane, Silver Spring MD 20906), M.T. DeLand et al.,
"Three-Dimensional Model Interpretation of NOx Measurements from the
Lower Stratosphere," I. Folkins (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), A.J.
"Intercomparison Campaign of Vertical Ozone Profiles Including
Electrochemical Sondes of ECC and Brewer-Mast Type and a Ground Based
UV-Differential Absorption Lidar," M. Beekmann (CNRS, Univ. Paris 6-4, pl.
Jussieu, Boite 102-75252, Paris Cedex 05, France), G. Ancellet et al., J.
Atmos. Chem., 19(3), 259-288, Oct. 1994.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations