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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1995

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
IMPACTS OF CO2


Item #d95jun94

"A Field Study of the Effects of Elevated CO2 on Carbon Assimilation, Stomatal Conductance and Leaf and Branch Growth of Pinus taeda Trees," R.O. Teskey (Warnell Sch. For. Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens GA 30602), Plant, Cell & Environ., 18(5), 565-573, May 1995.

A study of loblolly pines, that applied CO2 treatments in branch chambers, suggests that the growth potential of forests on many sites may be enhanced by global increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration.


Item #d95jun95

"Leaf Gas Exchange and Nitrogen Dynamics of N2-Fixing, Field-Grown Alnus glutinosa Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2," C.S. Vogel (Dept. Plant Biol., Ohio State Univ., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus OH 43210), P.S. Curtis, Global Change Biol., 1(1), 55-61, Feb. 1995.

Assesses the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content for doubled CO2, using black alder seedlings grown in open-top chambers in a low N soil. N2-fixing trees may be able to maintain high net CO2 assimilation with minimal negative adjustment of photosynthetic capacity.


Item #d95jun96

"Air Quality and Its Possible Impacts on the Terrestrial Ecosystems of the North American Great Plains: An Overview," S.V. Krupa (Dept. Plant Pathol., Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul MN 55108), A.H. Legge, Environ. Pollut., 88(1), 1-11, 1995.

In almost all univariate studies, elevated CO2 concentrations have produced increases in plant biomass. Future research must address whether this stimulation will offset any adverse effects of elevated surface O3 concentrations.


Item #d95jun97

"Responses in NPP and Carbon Stores of the Northern Biomes to a CO2-Induced Climatic Change, as Evaluated by the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM)," M.K.B. Ldeke (Inst. Phys. Chem., J.W. Goethe Univ., Marie Curie Str. 11, 60439 Frankfurt am Main, Ger.), S. D”nges et al., Tellus, 47B, 191-205, 1995.

For tripled CO2, the prediction for a pure climate effect is a 22% decrease of net primary production (NPP), resulting in a 170 Gt carbon source. Considering a CO2-induced enhancement of maximum photosynthesis, the pure climate effect is more than compensated, with a NPP increase of 9% and a total carbon sink of 50 Gt.


Item #d95jun98

"Interacting Effects of CO2 Concentration, Temperature and Nitrogen Supply on the Photosynthesis and Composition of Winter Wheat Leaves," E. Delgado, . .D.W. Lawlor (Biochem. & Physiol. Dept., Rothamsted Exp. Sta., Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK), Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(11), 1205-1213, Nov. 1994.

Doubling CO2 results in slightly greater photosynthetic capacity and no differences in carboxylation efficiency or apparent quantum yield. Nitrogen supply and temperature have large effects on photosynthetic characteristics but do not interact with elevated CO2. Nitrogen deficiency results in decreased protein content, photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency. A temperature increase also reduces these components and shortens the effective life of the leaves.


Item #d95jun99

"Plant Responses to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment with Emphasis on Roots and the Rhizosphere," H.H. Rogers (ARS, USDA, POB 3439, Auburn AL 36831), G.B. Runion, S.V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut., 83, 155-189, 1994.

Reviews past experiments on this neglected area of research, and integrates existing data with that of a recent study to form a database. Uses the database to arrive at a series of hypotheses that are priority targets for future research.


Item #d95jun100

"Impact of Climate Change on Grassland Production and Soil Carbon Worldwide," W.J. Parton (Natural Resour. Ecol. Lab., Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins CO 80523), . .and SCOPEGRAM Group Members (c/o D.O. Hall, Div. Life Sci., King's Coll., London W8 7AH, UK), Global Change Biology, 1(1), 13-22, Feb. 1995.

Modeling was done under two different climate change scenarios for 31 temperate and tropical grassland sites using the CENTURY model. The net effect of climate change and CO2 was an increase in net primary production in mesic and dry savanna regions, with little or no change in cold desert steppe or humid tropical regions. Detecting statistically significant change in plant production would require a 16% change because of high year-to-year variability in plant production. Most predicted changes in plant production are less than 10%.


Item #d95jun101

"Simulated Climate Change: Are Passive Greenhouses a Valid Microcosm for Testing the Biological Effects of Environmental Perturbations?" A.W. Kennedy (Marine Lab., CSIRO, POB 20, North Beach, Perth WA 6020, Australia), Global Change Biology, 1(1), 29-42, Feb. 1995.

Challenges the assumption of many studies that "passive" greenhouses (those not requiring artificial power input to create treatment conditions) provide a sufficiently controlled micro-environment for climate change research. Greenhouses modify temperature, moisture, light, gas composition, snow cover, and wind speed in a complex and interactive manner. However, the relationship between modification and forecast conditions of climate change is poor, and interpretation of biological responses and extrapolation to predictive models is unreliable. Suggests amendments to the methodology used in greenhouse experiments to overcome criticisms of artifact and lack of rigor.


Item #d95jun102

"Climate Change: Potential Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3), and Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation on Plant Diseases," W.J. Manning (Dept. Plant Pathol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003), A. V. Tiedemann, Environ. Pollut., 88(2), 219-245, 1995.

Very little is known about the actual impacts of climate change factors on disease epidemiology in plants. Increased CO2 could increase plant canopy size and density, with resulting greater biomass and higher microclimate relative humidity. This could promote diseases such as rusts, mildews, leaf spots and blights. Plants weakened through ozone could be more susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens; ozone is unlikely to directly affect fungal pathogens. Increased UV-B could lead to increased disease resistance through increased production of flavinoids, but reduced net photosynthesis, and premature ripening and senescence, could result in variable reactions to disease.

Specialized Papers


Item #d95jun103

"The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Respiration of Growing and Mature Soybean Leaves," J.A. Bunce (Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville MD 20705), Plant, Cell & Environ., 18(5), 575-581, May 1995.


Item #d95jun104

"CO2 Responsiveness of Plants: A Possible Link to Phloem Loading," Ch. Körner (Inst. Bot., Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), S. Pelaez-Riedl, A.J.E. van Bel, ibid., 595-600.


Item #d95jun105

"Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Biomass Production and Partitioning in Betula pubescens Ehrh. Seedlings at Different Ozone and Temperature Regimes," L.M. Mortensen (Dept. Hort. & Crop Sci., Agric. Univ., N-1342, Ås-NLH, Norway), Environ. Pollut., 87(3), 337-343, 1995.


Item #d95jun106

"Statistical Analysis of the Increase in Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations and Its Relation to the Possible Existence of CO2 Fertilization on a Global Scale," K. Okamoto (Tokyo Gakuen Univ., 1660, Hiregasaki, Nagareyama, Chiba Pref., 270-01 Japan), S. Tanimoto, K. Okano, Tellus, 47B, 206-211, 1995.

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