February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 5, MAY 1995
OF GENERAL INTEREST: CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE
Opens New Window on Climate Research," R.T. Pinker (Dept. Meteor., Univ.
Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), I. Laszlo et al.,
Eos, 76(15), 145, 155, Apr. 11, 1995.
Discusses how the combination of satellite observations and atmospheric
modeling has provided information on the radiative flux at the top and bottom of
the atmosphere, which has a variety of research uses for geophysicists,
agronomists, environmentalists and others.
Global Temperature, and Precession," D.J. Thomson (AT&T Bell Labs,
Murray Hill NJ 07974), Science, 268(5207), 59-67, Apr. 7, 1995.
(See Research News.) Statistically analyzes the structure of the annual or
seasonal cycle in temperature time series since the year 1659, using complex
demodulation. The results have several implications for interpretation of the
Earth's temperature record, including that solar variability cannot be the sole
cause of the temperature increase observed over the last century. About 1940,
the phase patterns of the previous 300 years began to change; the average change
in phase is now coherent with the logarithm of atmospheric CO2
concentration. Other results suggest that the effects of increasing greenhouse
gases may be worse than previously thought.
"A New Challenge:
Assessing Tropospheric Ozone as a Climate Gas," V.A. Mohnen (Quality
Assurance Ctr., Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmos. Sci., IFUGarmisch-Partenkirchen,
Ger.), W. Goldstein, W.-C. Wang, Atmos. Environ., 29(5),
641-642, Apr. 1995. (The first of a series of columns on "Research
Directions." To contribute to a future column, or comment on a previous
one, contact A.S. Lefohn, ASL Assoc., 111 N. Last Chance Gulch, S. 4A, Helena MT
Past assessments of ozone have focused on the planetary boundary layer and
the stratosphere; now ozone in the free troposphere is beginning to receive
renewed attention. An unprecedented level of international cooperation and
guidance must come from atmospheric chemists if a research/monitoring network is
to meet the needs of GCM modelers and policy makers. If future increases in
precursor gases and UV-B radiation are inevitable, higher quality global data
must be developed to document and understand changes in the chemical composition
of the atmosphere and to improve trend analysis.
Sulfide: No Remedy for Global Warming," S.J. Taubman (GFDL, POB 308,
Princeton NJ 08542), J.F. Kasting, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
22(7), 803-805, Apr. 1, 1995.
The cooling effect of enhanced stratospheric aerosol following the Mt.
Pinatubo eruption led to speculation about deliberately enhancing the layer with
carbonyl sulfide (OCS) emissions, to offset greenhouse warming. Calculations
with a one-dimensional photochemical model show that any attempt to use OCS as a
permanent solution to global warming could result in depletion of global average
ozone by at least 30%. To achieve cooling of 4° C, rainwater pH would
fall to 3.5-3.8, and the ambient ground-level OCS level would be above 10 ppmvan
unsafe level for humans.
Longterm Greenhouse Projections with the Geologic Record," T.J. Crowley
(Dept. Oceanog., Texas A&M Univ., College Sta. TX 77843), K.-Y. Kim, ibid.,
22(8), 933-936, Apr. 15, 1995.
Used a 1D energy balance model and an upwelling-diffusion ocean model to
explore the temperature response to extreme cases of unrestricted and severely
restricted greenhouse gas increases, and compared the results against revised
estimates of global temperature change over the last 100 million years. Suggests
that regardless of emission scenario or system sensitivity, future greenhouse
warming will be large, even on a geologic scale.
Ecosystems and the Carbon Cycle," D.S. Schimel (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), Global Change Biology, 1(1), 77-91, Feb. 1995.
Presents key results from an assessment for the IPCC, and presents detail
beyond that assessment on procedures used to approximate flux uncertainties.
Lack of knowledge about positive and negative feedbacks from the biosphere is a
major factor limiting credible simulations of future atmospheric CO2
concentrations. Contains extensive references and lists critical areas for
Global Changes in Precipitation," M. Hulme (Clim. Res. Unit., Univ. E.
Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Weather, 50(2), 34-42, Feb. 1995.
Summarizes the problems of establishing a global-mean record of
precipitation spanning the instrumental period, a considerably more difficult
task than estimating surface air temperature. The much larger natural variation
of precipitation in space and time is a major problem, and also makes
interpretation of estimated changes more difficult. Finding signals of
human-induced climate change in the precipitation record will remain an
intractable problem for some years to come.
Environ. Pollut., 83, 1994. Represents the proceedings of a
conference on climate change held in Bad Dürkheim, Germany, June 1992,
organized by Elsevier Science Publishers to assess the current state of
knowledge of atmospheric processes; discuss the effects of climate change on the
biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems; and determine future research
needs. Contains 23 papers from authors in the U.S., U.K., Germany, Canada, and
Portugal, beginning with "Climate of the Earth: An Overview," pp.
3-21, by M.B. McElroy (Dept. Earth Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138). The
remaining papers are in the following sections: Global Climate: Past and
Present; Stratosphere-Troposphere Interactions; Global ClimateModels and
Predictions; Impacts of Global Change on Terrestrial Vegetation: Carbon Dioxide,
UV-B Radiation and Ozone; Impacts of Global Change on Terrestrial Ecosystems: An
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations