February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1995
"Analysing the Conflicting Requirements of the Framework Convention
on Climate Change," I.G. Enting (Div. Atmos. Res., CSIRO, P.B. 1,
Mordialloc, Vic. 3195, Australia), Clim. Change, 31(1), 5-18,
The climate convention attempts to minimize atmospheric concentrations of
CO2, but economic interests require that this goal be achieved by minimizing
emission restrictions. This study takes a new approach to relating future
emissions and future CO2 concentrations, by optimizing over all possible future
emission profiles, subject to relevant constraints on both emissions and
concentrations. Presents calculations as a "proof of concept."
"Market-Based Mechanisms for Controlling Global Emissions of
Greenhouse GasesPossible Reference Bases for International Agreements,"
F. Neto (Dept. for Econ. & Social Info. & Policy Anal., United Nations),
Natural Resour. Forum, 19(3), 179-191, Aug. 1995.
Discusses the advantages of market-based mechanisms over regulation and the
main obstacles to their implementation. Recommends limiting a global permit
system to CO2 emissions from industrial processes, and combining this approach
with regulation of certain environmentally unsound activities, and with other
market-based mechanisms for other economic sectors, such as automobile
"Impact of Climate Change," Nature, 377(6594),
472, Oct. 12, 1995.
Correspondence from IPCC members responding to an earlier article about a
controversial IPCC working group report which assigns monetary values to human
"Greenhouse Gas Models and Abatement Costs for Developing Nations: A
Critical Assessment," P.R. Shukla (Indian Inst. Mgmt., Ahemdabad, India
380015), Energy Policy, 23(8), 677-687, Aug. 1995.
Most greenhouse gas policy studies use demand-driven, "bottom-up"
models, but results vary widely for different developing countries and have
limited utility. More uniform application and better data are needed. The few "top-down"
studies performed so far have tended to ignore the strong non-market dynamics of
developing nations. Makes specific recommendations for improving both types of
analysis for application to developing countries.
"Climate Change Policies in Europe: National Plans, EU Policies, and
the International Context," M. Grubb (Energy & Environ. Prog., Royal
Inst. Intl. Affairs, 10 St. James's Sq., London SW1Y 4LE, UK), Intl. J.
Environ. & Pollut., 5(2/3), 164-179, 1995.
Climate change policies in Europe can be characterized by two broad, though
not universal, consensuses. The first is that climate change is a serious
problem; the second is that we should not do anything serious about it. This
paper examines these two ideas, and explores where the obvious tension that is
embodied in them may lead. Discusses scientific developments since 1990; the
international processes that influence national positions; national plans
submitted under the climate treaty and their implications; and the role of the
European Union and prospects for Europe-wide policies. Europe mirrors, on a
smaller and more manageable scale, the global problem, and its response may
prove the essential test of whether, and if so how, humanity can respond to the
political challenge posed by the threat of climate change.
"European Climate Change Policy in a Global Context," M. Grubb
(address ibid.), Green Globe Yearbook 1995, pp. 41-50, 1995
(Oxford Univ. Press).
Analyzes the evolution and state of policy towards climate change in the
European Union (EU), assesses prospects for the EU meeting its CO2 emission
target, and considers future options for EU climate policy and their
international implications. With the effective collapse of the carbon/energy tax
and drastic weakening of the SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy
Efficiency) program, Europe does not have a strategy to achieve its CO2 target.
Yet there are substantial pressures to find a strategy, and perhaps during the
period of the sequential German, French and Spanish EU presidencies, political
realities may force member states to launch negotiations on binding targets,
tradable national emission quotas, or longer-term emission constraints.
"External Competence and the European Community," M. Hession
(Environ. Change Unit, Univ. Oxford, Oxford, U.K.), Global Environ. Change,
5(2), 155-156, May 1995.
Discusses an important legal and political theme in international
environmental management: the degree to which a collection of nations (in this
case the European Community) will submit to a collective legal authority.
"New Directions for Financing Global Environmental Change," D.
Pearce (CSERGE, Univ. College, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK), ibid.,
5(1), 27-40, Mar. 1995.
The developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere have committed perhaps $2
billion over the next three years toward the climate and biodiversity
conventions, but against the scale of the problems this is an inadequate sum.
However, there are opportunities for tapping into other sources of funds, and
for using official transfers as a lever for yet other funds. Enormous scope also
exists for reducing global environmental problems through the adoption of more
sensible economic policies. There is substantial potential for mutual gain
through global trades.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations