February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1995
MITIGATION POLICY AND ANALYSIS
"Mobilizing Rural People in Tanzania to Tree Planting: Why and How,"
A.J. Ahlbäck (UNDP/FAO Project VIE /92/022, For. Serv., 132 Ong Ich Khiem,
Danang, Vietnam), Ambio, 24(5), 304-310, Aug. 1995.
Although Tanzania has the technology, human resources and supporting
institutions needed to reforest, motivation and mobilization are lacking.
Suggests a combination of encouragement, coercion and trust to initiate action.
Tree planting would be compulsory, but the people would be trusted to decide
where, what and how to plant.
"Greenhouse Gas Decision Tools," T. Wilson (Elect. Power Res.
Inst., POB 10412, Palo Alto CA 94303), EPRI J., 40-42, May-June
Although no mandatory greenhouse gas emissions control programs exist, many
utilities participate in voluntary emissions reduction and reporting efforts
under the Department of Energy's Climate Challenge program and the Energy Policy
Act of 1992. EPRI is developing a set of decision tools to help utilities, and
plans to release a greenhouse gas accounting framework this year.
Four items from Resour. & Energy Econ., 17(1), May
"Induced Technical Change and International Agreements Under Greenhouse
Warming," A. Xepapadeas (Dept. Econ., Univ. Crete, Perivolia 74100
Rethymnon, Crete, Greece), 1-23. Examines the effects of technical change on
global problems related to the greenhouse effect and analyzes the problems in a
differential games framework. Discusses the policies of countries agreeing to
contribute resources to global research and development on international
"Efficient Incomplete International Climate Agreements," R.
Golombek, C. Hagem, M. Hoel (Dept. Econ., Univ. Oslo, POB 1095, Blindern, N-0317
Oslo, Norway), 25-46. The optimal design of a carbon tax exists when both
production and consumption of internationally traded fossil fuels are taxed. The
sum of the consumer tax and producer tax should be equal across all fossil fuels
per unit of carbon. If cooperating countries use a tax on consumption or
production only, the tax per unit of carbon should in general be differentiated
across fossil fuels.
"The Welfare Cost of a Global Carbon Tax when Tax Revenues are
Recycled," W.K. Jaeger (Dept. Econ., Williams Coll., Williamstown MA
01267), 47-67. A revenue-neutral carbon tax policy, where carbon tax revenues
finance reductions in other revenue-raising taxes, has a positive net welfare
effect in the range required to aggressively slow climate change. Based on tax
efficiency considerations alone, the optimal reduction in emissions is 37%. When
benefits from avoiding greenhouse damages are included in the model, the optimal
reduction is 40%.
"Emissions, Concentrations and Disappearing CO2," C. Price (School
Agric. & For. Sci., Univ. Coll. N. Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK),
87-97. The costs of CO2 emissions may be seriously underestimated if land-use
sources and missing sinks are excluded or underestimated, and if oceanic uptake
is modeled as a simple exponential.
"Automobiles and Global Warming: Alternative Fuels and Other Options
for Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction," A.D. Sagar (A-11, Pushpanjarli,
Vikas Marg, Delhi 110092, India), Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 15(3),
241-276, May 1995.
Discusses the feasibility and desirability of large-scale production and use
of alternative fuels. Greater vehicle efficiency and more efficient modes of
passenger transportation are more effective and immediate ways to tackle the
problem of pollutant emissions, especially given the limitations of currently
available alternative fuels and the potential for future alternatives.
"Economic Approaches to Cost Estimates for Limiting Emissions of
Carbon Dioxide," Z.-X. Zhang (Dept. General Econ., Landbouw Univ., POB
8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth.), Intl. J. Environ. & Pollut., 5(2-3),
Dynamic optimization models are useful for focusing on technological
solutions, and input-output models are useful for focusing on impacts of a
carbon tax on the economic structure. Macroeconomic models best capture the
transitional impacts of a carbon tax on inflation and unemployment. The
computable general equilibrium approach is best for analyzing the economic
effects of large changes in the demand/supply structure, and for long-run
"MERGE: A Model for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of GHG
Reduction Policies," A. Manne (Dept. Operations Res., Stanford Univ.,
Stanford CA 94305), R. Mendelsohn, R. Richels, Energy Policy, 23(1),
17-34, Jan. 1995.
Models such as MERGE are capable of showing which factors in the climate
debate (e.g. costs, damages, valuation and discounting) are most important. They
are sufficiently flexible to explore all views, and can help focus the
discussion and identify the areas where additional research may have the highest
"Avoiding Excessive Greenhouse Effect by Delayed Emission of Carbon
Dioxide from the Fossil-Fuel Cycle," W. Seifritz (Chapfstr. 4, CH-52
Windisch, Switz.), Appl. Energy, 51(1), 39-49, 1995.
Discusses a proposal to sequester CO2 in the form of dry ice in thermally
insulated, leaky repositories to delay CO2 emission into the atmosphere.
Estimates that the recovery time of the atmosphere from surplus anthropogenic
CO2 is shorter than the time for sublimation, and that the atmospheric CO2 peak
responsible for the greenhouse effect would be delayed and damped.
"Analysis of the Chinese Energy System: Implications for Future CO2
Emissions," Z.-X. Zhang (Dept. General Econ., Landbouw Univ. Wageningen,
POB 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth.), Intl. J. Environ. & Pollut.,
4(3-4), 181-198, 1994.
China is expected to rely mainly on coal to fuel the development of its
economy and improve its standard of living. Therefore efforts to combat air
pollution must be directed at more efficient use of coal. Outlines several
policy measures that have been or will be implemented and concludes that their
implementation is expected to accelerate when curbing global CO2 emissions
requires special action on China's part.
Three related items from Clim. Change, 30(3), July 1995:
"Valuation of Global Afforestation Programs for Carbon Mitigation,"
S. Nilsson (IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria), 249-257. An editorial that
reviews some aspects of the application of traditional cost-benefit analysis to
long-term environmental problems. Because good analyses can yield results that
differ by more than an order of magnitude, asks if the discipline is advanced
enough to give meaningful results on long-term environmental problems.
"On 'Valuation of Global Afforestation. . .by Sten Nilsson," H.F.
Hoen (Norwegian For. Res. Inst., European Forest Inst., POB 5044, N-1432 ÅS,
Norway), B. Solberg, 259-266. Comments on the preceding editorial, reaching a
more optimistic conclusion regarding the role of cost-benefit analysis in
evaluating alternative forest-related projects, programs or strategies connected
to climate change issues.
"The Carbon Sequestration Potential of a Global Afforestation Program,"
S. Nilsson (address above), W. Schopfhauser, 267-293. Analyzes the changes in
the carbon cycle that could be achieved with a global, large-scale afforestation
program that is economically, politically, and technically feasible. Only about
345 million hectares would actually be available for the sole purpose of
sequestering carbon, and the maximum rate of carbon fixation would only be
achieved 60 years after the establishment of the plantations. Over the period
1995 to 2095, the amount of carbon sequestered would be substantially lower than
that required to offset current carbon emissions.
"The Evolution of International Policies and Mechanisms to Advance
Sustainable Forest Management and Mitigate Global Climate Change," J.
Bologna (Intl. For. Policy, USDA For. Service, POB 96538, Washington DC 20090),
J. Lyke, K. Theophile, World Resour. Rev., 7(2), 169-189, June
Reviews international attention to deforestation since 1985, through
institutions like the Tropical Forestry Action Program, the International
Tropical Timber Organization, the World Bank, and through innovative financial
arrangements between developed and developing countries. The next few years will
see a proactive set of multilateral programs to address deforestation, an
increasing link between trade and the environment, and more uses of financial
incentives to encourage sustainable forest development.
"Setting Targets and the Choice of Policy Instruments for Limiting
CO2 Emissions," Z.X. Zhang (Dept. Gen. Econ., Landbouw Univ., POB 8130,
6700 EW Wageningen, Neth.), Energy & Environ., 5(4),
Gives an overview and comparison of policy options including the
command-and-control approach, energy taxes, carbon taxes, and tradeable carbon
permits, with special attention paid to the economic instruments. Synthesizes
findings from studies on carbon taxes, and concludes that carbon taxes appear to
be the superior and more flexible instrument for controlling emissions and
avoiding large and unexpected costs.
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Index of Abbreviations