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MITIGATION
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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1996

REPORTS...
MITIGATION


Item #d96aug42

Global Warming: A Guide to Market-Based Controls on the Energy Sector, I. Fells, L. Woolhouse, 1996, $312/£195 (FT-Energy).

Analyzes the range of mechanisms available to curb CO2 emissions, including the rationale behind each approach, ease of implementation, capacity to reduce emissions, and likely effects on economic competitiveness. Appraises such topics as the present role of regulation in the energy market; the strengths and weaknesses of various computer models in assessing the impact of policies to limit CO2 emissions; the success of the U.S. SO2 emissions trading program, and the suitability of a similar approach to limit CO2 emissions; the pros and cons of carbon and energy taxes.


Item #d96aug43

Joint Implementation: Opportunities for Business Under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, D. Adams, 1996, $632/£395 (FT-Energy).

Explains the rationale behind this concept and the mechanisms involved in its operation, and compares it with other approaches such as taxes, subsidies, direct regulation and tradeable permits. Analyzes different types of joint implementation projects, activities of countries already involved (particularly the U.S., The Netherlands, Norway and Sweden), the role of funding agencies, and options for financing joint implementation schemes in developing countries.


Item #d96aug44

Climate Technology Initiative: Inventory of Activities, 88 pp., Intl. Energy Agency, 1996, $19/FF95/DM28 (OECD).

Illustrates the extent of activity underway in 23 IEA/OECD participating countries to promote the development and deployment of climate-friendly technologies. The CTI Inventory is expected to be a valuable tool to help identify new avenues to improve technology responses to climate change concerns, and should provide interested countries an opportunity to identify activities in IEA/OECD countries they may wish to join.


Item #d96aug45

Climate Change, Economic Instruments and Income Distribution, 68 pp., 1996, $19/FF100/DM28 (0ECD).

Explores the distributive implications of two economic instruments to combat global warming: carbon taxes and tradeable emission permits. Considers how global warming affects different countries and regions, and shows who stands to gain or lose from greenhouse gas reduction policies. Presents results for different income groups, economic sectors and geographical regions, and discusses options for mitigating or compensating the adverse effects of carbon taxes or trading programs. Recommends relatively low carbon taxes and trading programs, coordinated internationally but applied on a country-by-country basis.


Item #d96aug46

Boosting Prosperity: Reducing the Threat of Global Climate Change Through Sustainable Energy Investments, D.H. Ogden, Jan. 1996 (Environ. Info. Ctr.). An 8-page summary and the 80-page report are available at no charge from the Environ. Info. Ctr.; tel: 202 797 6500.

This study, funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Energy Foundation, argues that energy efficiency and the use of renewable sources would increase economic growth while cutting the threat of global change. Examples of companies that have profited from such changes are given.


Item #d96aug47

Two working papers from CSERGE; each costs $9/£5.

Approaches to Vulnerability to Climate Change (GEC 96-05), W.N. Adger, 63 pp., 1996.

The Role of Natural Resource Management in Mitigating Climate Impacts: Mangrove Restoration in Vietnam (GEC 96-06), N.H. Tri, W.N. Adger et al., 29 pp., 1996.


Item #d96aug48

Five new 1996 reports from ACEEE:

The Impact of Energy Sector Restructuring on Energy Consumption and the Environment: International Experiences, S. Nadel, 15 pp., $9. Reviews several recent cases of gas and electric utility restructuring in the U.S., the U.K. and Norway, and their impacts on energy prices, energy demand, fuel mixes and energy efficiency.

Partnerships: A Path for the Design of Utility/Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs, R.N. Elliott, M. Pye, S. Nadel, 50 pp., $12. Examines several existing and experimental partnerships between utilities and their industrial customers and the lessons and ideas that emerged.

Successful Government-Industry Partnerships: The U.S. Department of Energy's Role in Advancing Energy-Efficient Technologies, H. Geller, S. McGaraghan, 25 pp., $10. Reviews these important energy-efficiency technologies: low-emissivity windows, electronic ballasts, and high efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems, along with their market impacts and economic benefits.

Combining Higher Efficiency and Renewable Biofuels to Reduce Light Vehicle Oil Use and CO2 Emissions, J. DeCicco, L. Lynd, 25 pp., $10. Examines the implications for biofuels of policies that foster higher fuel economy through conventional vehicle technologies. These would encourage liquid biofuels production from cellulose biomass, using emerging low net carbon production processes.


Item #d96aug49

Environmental Benefits of Electrification and End-Use Efficiency (EPRI TR-106196), Regional Econ. Research Inc., 176 pp., Mar. 1996, $200 to EPRI nonmembers (EPRI).

Updates estimates of the environmental benefits of electrification and changes in end-use efficiency in the U.S., focusing on CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions. Although the electric power industry is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, this contribution must be viewed in the context of alternatives, including greater reliance on fossil fuel technologies. Selective use of efficient, clean electrotechnologies in a wide variety of appliances reduces total energy consumption and total emissions.


Item #d96aug50

Reducing Urban Transport Pollution, Apr. 1996. The full paper and a four-page summary are available from the French Green Party.

Prepared by a number of environmental organizations and released during Earth Day celebrations in Paris. Proposes that the European Union implement limits on engine performance through a directive that would limit the top speed of cars manufactured after 2000 to 140 km per hr. Currently autos are capable of speeds above that figure, even though the highway speed limit in France is 130 kph. The existence of underutilized power in current autos leads to a 20% loss in energy efficiency and a 20% increase in pollution. The report also contains recommendations on the use of alternative forms of transport, regulations on minimum fuel consumption in cars, incentives for alternative fuels, and taxes on diesel fuels.


Item #d96aug51

Estimation of the Effects of Various Municipal Waste Management Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions (EPS 2/AP/1), 44 pp., 1995, US$19.95/Can.$19.95 (Environ. Canada).

Discusses the types of waste management strategies as alternatives to landfills that can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Item #d96aug52

Wildfire and Carbon Emissions: A Policy Modeling Approach, R.N. Sampson, L.R. Clark, 1995, $10 (American Forests).

Assesses how forest health and wildfire in the inland western U.S. affect the forest carbon cycle, and develops a generalized model that predicts how different management scenarios affect forest carbon sequestration. In this region, several management practices have led to an unnaturally high storehouse of terrestrial carbon, and to many unhealthy forests. By moving that carbon into the atmosphere, large-scale wildfires are turning these forests into a net carbon source.


Item #d96aug53

The Economics of Forestry Opportunities to Sequester and Store Carbon: Assessment of Existing Studies, R.A. Sedjo, J. Wisniewski et al., 1994, $10 (American Forests).

Looks at studies of the economics of using forests for mitigating atmospheric carbon build-up. Identifies critical needs and research opportunities.


Item #d96aug54

Survey of Trees on Australian Farms: 1993-94 (Res. Rep. 95.7), 53 pp., Oct. 1995, Aust.$25 (ABARE).

Although Australian farmers have been planting trees on their own initiative and in response to private and government programs, there has been no consistent information on the process, nor on the costs and benefits of the plantings. To fill this gap, about 2000 broadacre and dairy farms were surveyed, and results reported here.


Item #d96aug55

Meeting Greenhouse Targets in Australia: Implications for Coal Use (CP 94.34), 1994, Aust.$10 (ABARE).

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