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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1996

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
CARBON CYCLE


Item #d96feb13

"Vehicle Emission Reduction by Brake Energy Recovery," C. Jefferson (Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the West of England, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK), Atmos. Environ., 30(1), i-ii, Jan. 1996.

Outlines an engineering analysis showing that recovery of the energy now wasted in braking vehicles could make a significant contribution to CO2 abatement, and increase urban air quality.


Item #d96feb14

"Impact of Structural Changes and Energy Savings on Emission-Reduction Strategies for Central and Eastern Europe," O. Rentz, (Inst. Industrial Production, Univ. Karlsruhe, Hertzstr. 16, D-76187, Karlsruhe, Ger), A. Jattke et al., Energy, 20(12), 1181-1189, Dec. 1995.

Analyzes impacts on four countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Ukraine) using scenarios with differing final energy demands, assumed CO2 emission reductions, and country-specific factors. Results show that emission reduction costs and potential pollution control measures differ significantly from those in Western European countries, and differ among the four countries.


Item #d96feb15

"Biofuels System Economics," J.D. Broder (Biotech. & Bioremediation, Tenn. Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals AL 35660), World Resour. Rev., 7(4), 560-569, Dec. 1995.

The use of biomass fuels reduces net CO2 emissions and avoids methane emissions from landfilling biomass wastes. This paper compares the economics of six biomass conversion systems. Research at the Tennessee Valley Authority is aimed at improving the economic rate of return from investments in biomass systems, which now runs as high as about 20%.


Item #d96feb16

Two items from Energy, 20(11), Nov. 1995:

"Reducing CO2 Emissions by Substituting Biomass for Fossil Fuels," L. Gustavsson (Dept. Environ. & Energy Sys. Studies, Lund Univ. Gerdagatan 13, S-223 62 Lund, Swed.), P. Börjesson et al., 1097-1113. Calculates the efficiency of substitution in terms of reduced CO2 emissions per unit of used land or biomass, and costs per ton of carbon. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels is more cost effective in electricity and heat production than in transportation; for transportation, methanol has the lowest emission-reduction costs. Exploitation of biomass potential in Sweden could eliminate over half the country's CO2 emissions.

"Carbon Dioxide Disposal in Carbonate Materials," K.S. Lackner (Los Alamos Natl. Lab., MS B216, Los Alamos NM 87545), C.H. Wendt et al., 1153-1170. Introduces a safe and permanent method of CO2 disposal based on combining it chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals, in a reaction that requires little net energy. Preliminary examination of two specific processes yields promising cost estimates.


Item #d96feb17

"Stability of Liquid CO2 in Seawater at High Pressures," Y. Fujioka (Nagasaki R&D Ctr., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 5-717-1 Fukahori, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki 851-03, Japan), K. Takeuchi et al., Intl. J. Energy Res., 19(8), 19,659-19,664, Nov. 1995.

Laboratory experiments suggest that a huge amount of liquid CO2 can be sequestered for a very long time if it is deposited at depths greater than 3700 meters in the ocean.


Item #d96feb18

"Regrets or No Regrets—That is the Question: Is Conservation a Costless CO2 Mitigation Strategy?" A. Rose (Dept. Mineral Econ., Pennsylvania State Univ., 221 Walker Bldg., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), S.-M. Lin, The Energy J., 16(3), 67-87, 1995.

Energy conservation has been offered as a "no regrets" strategy based on partial equilibrium analyses (those that consider isolated sectors of the economy). This study is the first to examine impacts in a general equilibrium analysis, and finds slightly negative effects on the U.S. economy overall. Conservation may be a worthy mitigation strategy, but it should not be oversold as costless.


Item #d96feb19

"Environmental Impacts of Sequestering Carbon Through Forestation," J. Englin (Dept. Agric. Econ., Univ. Nevada, Reno NV 89557), J.M. Callaway, Clim. Change, 31(1), 67-78, Sep. 1995.

Examines the impacts of a carbon sequestration policy on environmental amenities in existing Douglas-fir forests subject to logging. Amenities studied include trout, wildlife diversity, visual aesthetics, soil stability, deer and elk populations, and water yield. Finds that the effect of such a policy will depend on the discount rate chosen.


Item #d96feb20

Two items from World Resour. Rev., 7(3), Sep. 1995:

"Energy Conservation as a Tool for Greenhouse Gas Abatement," Y. ElMahgary (VTT-ENERGY, Finland), M.A-F. Shama et al., 347-357. Gives results of a study undertaken by the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT), within the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, using both bottom-up (engineering) and top-down (macroeconomic) analyses. The former found most measures to be cost-effective; the latter found a direct positive effect on the economy, in addition to that of emission control.

"Regional Growth Management Policies: Toward Reducing Global Warming at State and Local Levels," J. Purdie (Ctr. for Real Estate Res., Washington State Univ., Pullman WA 99164), 367-385. Addresses issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state, and regional levels that affect global warming. Reviews existing programs and makes recommendations related to urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns. Examines opportunities for improved coordination between jurisdictions.


Item #d96feb21

"Carbon Balance in the Forest Sector in Finland During 1990-2039," T. Karjalainen (Faculty Forestry, Univ. Joensuu, POB 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Fin.), S. Kellomäki, A. Pussinen, Clim. Change, 30(4), 451-478, Aug. 1995.

Investigates the carbon sequestration capacity of the forest sector in Finland, by quantifying the stocks and fluxes of carbon in the stemwood of forests and in forest-based products, under three scenarios of wood production. The balance of carbon in wood products is analyzed with regard to its sensitivity to changes in recycling, in the lifespan of products, in the rate of landfill decay, and in the production capacity of the forest industry.


Item #d96feb22

"Nonconventional Energy Sources—A Solution to Global Warming in the Indian Context," C.S. Maji (Environ. Eng., MECON Ltd., Ranchi, Bihar, India), Energy Sources, 17(4), 459-475, July-Aug. 1995.

Reviews steps being taken by the government of India to promote nonconventional energy sources. The use of such sources is not gaining ground as expected in India, due to high initial costs; concerted efforts are needed to achieve this goal.


Item #d96feb23

Two items from Energy, 20(6), June 1995:

"CO2 Reduction Potential Through Nonconventional Energy Sources in India," N.C. Gupta, V.K. Jain (Sch. Environ. Sci., J. Nehru Univ., New Delhi 110 067, India), N.K. Bansal, 549-553. Presents CO2 emission rates based on actual fossil-fuel consumption over the past 20 years, and discusses options for reducing future emissions. The use of non-conventional sources could reduce India's energy-related CO2 emissions 11.8% below 1988-1989 levels by the year 2005-2006.

"Cost of CO2 Reduction in Building Construction," P. Tiwari (I. Ghandi Inst. of Develop. Res., Gen. Vaidya Marg, Goregaon (East), Bombay 400 065, India), J. Parikh, 531-547. The construction sector accounts for the highest share (17%) of CO2 emissions in the Indian economy, because it uses highly energy-intensive materials and the need for shelter is high. This study analyzes the opportunities and costs of reducing these emissions, the techniques and materials that would be needed, and the impacts of alternative technologies on employment in the construction industry.


Item #d96feb24

"Automobiles and Global Warming: Alternative Fuels and Other Options for Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction," A.D. Sagar (A-11 Pushpanjarli, Vikas Marg, Delhi 100 092, India), Environ. Impact Asses. Rev., 15(3), 241-274, May 1995.

Discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive CO2 emissions. Concludes that other options, such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation, may be preferable, in view of the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints of potential future alternative fuels.

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