February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1996
Environmental Treaty Secretariats: A Case of Neglected Potential?" R.
Sandford (Dept. Urban Studies, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), Environ.
Impact Assess. Rev., 16(1), 3-12, Jan. 1996.
Secretariats play a crucial role in the implementation phase of
international environmental treaties by transforming their goals into practical
achievements. Yet they are often neglected, regularly criticized, and seldom
rewarded for helping governments meet treaty obligations. Because it can take
generations to ensure that a treaty is implemented effectively, neglecting the
impacts of civil servants as influential actors in the international policy
process is a major oversight. Examines the factors which enable secretariats to
have such influence.
Two items in Ecological
Econ., 16(1), Jan. 1996:
"The Secondary Benefits of CO2 Abatement: How Much Emission
Reduction Do They Justify?" P. Elkins (Dept. Econ., Univ. London, 7-15
Gresse St., London W1P 1PA, UK), 13-24. Reviews estimates of the benefits of
reducing fossil fuel emissions other than CO2, as a by-product of CO2
abatement. The estimates are few and uncertain, but uniformly suggest that the
benefits are of the same order of magnitude as the gross costs of abatement of
medium to high levels of CO2. Concludes that the existence of these
significant benefits greatly strengthens the economic case for an aggressive
policy of CO2 abatement.
"Charging the Earth: The Promotion of Price-Based Measures for
Pollution Control," S. Beder (Dept. Sci. & Technol., Univ. Wollongong,
Northfields Ave., Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia), 51-63. Only recently have
economic instruments for pollution control been embraced by business groups and
governments looking for a way to avoid stricter and more costly regulation that
might inhibit economic growth. This paper examines the rationale for price-based
instruments, explains how economists have managed to enroll the support of
interest groups, even those with conflicting interests, and discusses the
outlook for success.
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