February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1996
Methods for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Countries with Economies in
Transition, Environ. Mgmt., 20(Suppl. 1), 1996 (pub. by
Springer-Verlag). Contains 12 papers based on presentations at a June 1995
workshop held in Warsaw, Poland, by the U.S. Country Studies Program, the OECD,
and the U.S. EPA. The first article listed below is a workshop summary.
"Methods for Assessing Greenhouse Mitigation for Countries with
Economies in Transition: Summary of Workshop Presentations and Discussions,"
M. Sadowski (Clim. Protection Ctr., Warszawa, Poland), S. Meyers et al. (Guest
"Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Mitigation," K.
"Alternative Energy Balances for Bulgaria to Mitigate Climate Change,"
C. Christov, S27-S30.
"Modeling Impacts of Policy Measures in the Polish Country Study,"
H. Gaj, S31-S36.
"Structural and Technological Changes of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
During the Transition Period in Polish Industry," S. Pasierb, K. Niedziela,
J. Wojtulewicz, S37-S46.
"Greenhouse Gas Emissions Projections and Mitigation Options for the
Czech Republic, 1990-2010," M. Tichy, S47-S56.
"Estimating the Potential of Greenhouse Mitigation in Kazakhstan,"
E. Monacrovich, O. Pilifosova et al., S57-S64.
"Netherlands Policy-Making Process on Scenarios and Projections for
Greenhouse Gas Emissions," H. Merkus, W. Iestra, S65-S74.
"The United Kingdom's Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options,"
J. Penman, S75-S82.
"An Investigation of Renewable Resources and Renewable Technology
Applications in Bulgaria," P. Ivanov, St. Lingova et al., S83-S94.
"Potential of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems in Rural Areas for
Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in Poland," P. Skowronski, G. Wisniewski,
"Calculation of CO2 Net Sinks/Emissions in Russian Forests
and Assessment of Mitigation Options," A.O. Kokorin, A.L. Lelyakin et al.,
"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the Forest Sector of Russia:
National and Project Level Assessments," T.S. Vinson, T.P. Kolchugina, K.A.
Andrasko, S111 ff.
Consequences of the Clean Coal Program for Air and Waste Issues," T.J.
Blasing (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.L. Miller,
L.N. McCold, J. Air & Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 46, 517-529, June
The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program
initially focused on the precursors of acid precipitation, but clean coal
technologies may also produce less CO2. This analysis shows that the
repowering approach appears to be the most beneficial from an environmental
standpoint, and if widely accepted could contribute to U.S. and global
reductions in CO2, SO2, NOx, and solid waste. In contrast, retrofit
technologies effectively reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx, but scarcely affect CO2.
Two articles from Energy
Policy, 24(3), Mar. 1996:
"A Free Lunch at Higher CAFE? A Review of Economic, Environmental and
Social Benefits," H. Dowlatabadi (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh PA
15213), L.B. Lave, A.G. Russell, 253-264. Pressure has been increasing to raise
the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard for automobiles. This
analysis finds that fuel savings from increasing CAFE are subject to diminishing
returns, with little or no effect on urban air pollution, and a less than
proportional reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Given current technology,
substantial increases in CAFE have substantial costs, including reduced safety,
and do not appear to offer significant benefits as contended.
"The CO2 Mitigation Options for the Electric Sector. A Case
Study of Taiwan," H. Bai (Inst. Environ. Eng., Natl. Chiao-Tung Univ., 75
Po-Ai St., Hsin-Chu, Taiwan), J.-H. Wei, 221-228. Uses a linear programming
model to evaluate the effectiveness of possible options for Taiwan, including
alternative fuels, energy conservation, reduced peak production, improved
electric efficiency and CO2 capture. Energy conservation can
significantly reduce CO2 emissions only when combined with reduced
peak production and improved electric efficiency. CO2 capture and
disposal can be an effective and economic option.
Mitigation Strategies: Preliminary Results from the U.S. Country Studies
Program," R.K. Dixon (U.S. Country Studies Prog., PO-63, 1000 Independence
Ave. SW, Washington DC 20585), J.A. Sathaye et al.,
Ambio, 25(1), 26-32, Feb. 1996.
Describes the U.S. contributions of financial and technical support aimed at
helping developing and transition countries meet their future obligations to
report greenhouse gas emissions inventories and response (mitigation) options.
Preliminary assessments suggest that greenhouse gas stabilization strategies
should focus on fossil fuel combustion and carbon sequestration through forest
management. In selected countries, mitigation of methane sources is also
warranted. Strengthening human and institutional capacity to cope with global
climate change issues will provide developing and transition countries with a
sustained basis for meeting the goals of the climate convention.
Inventory-Based Procedure to Estimate Economic Costs of Forest Management on a
Regional Scale to Conserve and Sequester Atmospheric Carbon," D.K. Lewis
(Dept. Forestry, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater OK 74078), D.P. Turner, J.K.
Winjum, Ecol. Econ., 16(1), 35-49, Jan. 1996.
Because forests are carbon pools and also affect the flux of CO2
to the atmosphere, estimates of the costs of forest management to mitigate
climate change must integrate biological, social and economic considerations,
and consider the distributional impacts of forest policy alternatives. An
estimation procedure is presented and applied to four policy scenarios for the
"Full Fuel Cycle
Carbon Balances of Bioenergy and Forestry Options," B. Schlamadinger
(Joanneum Res., Elisabethstr. 11, A-8010 Graz, Austria), G. Marland, Energy
Conversion Mgmt., 37(6-8), 813-818, 1996.
Compares conventional forest management with short-rotation forestry in
terms of carbon balance under biomass utilization. Important parameters for the
net reduction of carbon emissions are the site occupancy prior to the project,
growth rate, efficiency of biomass conversion into energy and non-energy
products, and carbon emission rates and efficiencies of displaced fossil fuels.
The carbon balance outcome can differ considerably depending on the analysis
period (20, 50 or 100 years).
and Forest Management Strategies: How Do We Calculate the Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Benefits?" G. Marland (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab.,
Oak Ridge TN 37831), G. Schlamadinger, Energy, 20(11),
Used a simple model of carbon flows to show that a full fuel-cycle analysis
of the benefits of biomass energy systems must take into account the by-products
produced along with the biofuel, the temporal variability of carbon stocks, and
fluxes associated with the standing biomass and its harvest. The analysis
presents interesting accounting challenges to establish a clearly understood
balance of emission credits and debits among parties exchanging biofuels and
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by Increasing Ocean Alkalinity," H.S. Kheshgi
(Corporate Res. Labs., Exxon Res. & Eng. Co., Annandale NJ 08801), ibid.,
20(9), 915-922, Sep. 1995.
Presents a preliminary analysis of the geoengineering option of sequestering
atmospheric CO2 by increasing ocean alkalinity, for example by
dissolving soda ash or limestone. The approach appears to be limited only by the
availability of energy. Like all geoengineering schemes, this one should be
viewed as a potential future option subject to further evaluation as knowledge
about potential side effects improves.
Clathrate Hydrate Formation During Carbon Dioxide Injection into the Ocean,"
G.D. Holder, A.V. Cugini, R.P. Warzinski (US DOE, Energy Technol. Ctr.,
Pittsburgh PA 15236), Environ. Sci. & Technol., 29(1),
276-278, Jan. 1995.
Predicts the effect of the formation of ice-like CO2 clathrate
hydrate on the fate of CO2 droplets discharged into the ocean under
hydrate-forming conditions, using new information on hydrate growth rates. If
not properly understood and controlled, hydrate formation can severely limit the
dissolution process or permit CO2 to rise to shallow depths,
defeating the objectives of deep-ocean injection.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations