February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1996
Environmental Performance in OECD Countries: Progress in the 1990s,
66 pp., Feb. 1996, $19/FF90/DM26 (OECD).
Environmental policies have led to a better environment without major
economic costs, but economic, transport, energy and agricultural policies should
be more environmentally conscious. To meet current and future commitments,
countries must move quickly to integrate environmental and economic policies,
especially in these sectors, and provide price signals that reflect social and
environmental costs rather than environmentally damaging subsidies.
Integrating Environment and Economy: Progress in the 1990s, 62
pp., Feb. 1996, $19/FF90/DM26 (OECD).
Focuses on the environmentally-sensitive energy, transport and agricultural
sectors, emphasizing how environmental policy can be linked with fiscal,
employment and trade policies. There has been progress in some areas, for
example reform of some tax regimes and reduction of some environmentally harmful
subsidies. Suggests several important issues that still must be addressed.
Implementation Strategies for Environmental Taxes, 94 pp., Feb.,
1996, $46/FF235/DM68 (OECD).
Ecotaxes provide an effective economic instrument to integrate environmental
protection into the economy by creating an incentive to reduce pollution. But
their implementation raises a number of problems, which this report analyzes.
Defusing the "Population Bomb" with Free Markets
(Policy Study 129), T. Lambert, 35 pp., Feb. 1996. Contact Center for the Study
of American Business, Campus Box 1208, Washington Univ., St. Louis MO 63130
(tel: 314 935 5630).
Debunks doomsayers' assertions that a growing population will soon squander
the Earth's finite natural resources. The world is not short of the living space
or agricultural land needed to support projected population increases, and
population growth does not imply intolerable levels of pollution. Given economic
freedom, individuals have made, and will continue to make, decisions that allow
the Earth to meet the needs of growing populations. Public policy should not
emphasize increased spending on controversial family planning programs, but
should focus on encouraging economic freedom around the world.
Marking a Milestone in Ozone Protection: Learning from the CFC
Phaseout, E. Cook, Jan. 1996, $7 (WRI).
A summary for a book-length report to be published in April. Many U.S.
industries were able to eliminate CFCs more quickly, at lower cost, or with
greater environmental benefits that experts once predicted. This occurred in the
U.S. because of the use of market-based instruments such as excise taxes,
entrepreneurial government initiatives, corporate leadership and competition,
and scientific advances coupled with public education. The U.S. experience
provides important lessons that can be applied to other environmental
challenges; the disappointing experience of countries trying to meet greenhouse
gas emission goals stems mainly from the absence of an enforceable target.
The Global Climate is Changing, 1996. The summary and a key
chapter in English; the full report is in Swedish. Contact Tom Hedlund, Swed.
Environ. Protect. Agency, Blekholmsterrasen 36, S-106 48 Stockholm, Swed. (fax:
46 8 202925).
Outlines possibilities for a protocol to the climate convention. Options
that are analyzed for effectiveness and applicability to Sweden include per
capita emissions targets, percentage of CO2 reductions, joint implementation and
harmonized carbon taxes.
Climate Change, Economic Instruments, and Income Distribution, 76
pp., Dec. 1995, $19. Implementation Strategies for Environmental Taxes,
150 pp., $46, Dec. 1995. Both available from OECD.
The first report assesses income distribution associated with taxes or
tradeable permits to respond to the threat of climate change, in terms of the
levels of individual income groups, economic sectors or nations. Suggests broad
approaches for mitigating or compensating adverse effects. The second report,
drawing from the experience of OECD countries, reviews implementation and sets
down considerations needed for successful implementation of ecotaxes.
The following 1995 reports are part of the GEC Working Paper Series and
are available at $9/£5 per copy from CSERGE.
Institutional Adaptation to Global Environmental Change, A. Jordan,
T. O'Riordan. (I): Social Institutions, Policy Change and Social Learning
(GEC 95-20), 41 pp., and (II): Core Elements of an "Institutional"
Theory (GEC 95-21), 36 pp.
Valuing Air Pollution in the National Accounts (GEC 95-22), K.
Hamilton, G. Atkinson, 25 pp.
Social Accounting, Genuine Saving and Measures of Economic Welfare
(GEC 95-23), G. Atkinson, 19 pp.
Verifying Compliance with an Unmonitorable Climate Convention (GEC
95-24), S. Subak, 40 pp.
Joint Implementation and Uniform Mixing (GEC 95-29), R.J. Heintz,
R.S.J. Tol, 20 pp.
Recent Advancements in the Economic Assessment of Climate Change
Costs (GEC 95-31), S. Fankhauser, R. Tol, 21 pp.
North-South Transfers, Incremental Costs and the Rio Environment
Conventions (GEC 95-33), R. Cervigni, 37 pp.
The following two reports are available from ABARE:
Global Climate Change: Economic Dimensions of a Cooperative
International Policy Response Beyond 2000, Oct. 1995, US $29/AUS $39.
Used the dynamic general equilibrium model, MEGABARE, to perform an
equitable burden sharing study with respect to stabilizing greenhouse gas
emissions. Global Environ. Change Rep. (pp. 4-5, Oct. 20, 1995) reported
that preliminary results presented at conferences had generated controversy. The
study suggests that the most economic way to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions
globally is to equalize the marginal costs of abatement across all countries;
these would be relatively low in developing countries. Critics claimed the model
is flawed and the study only serves to bolster Australia's current position.
Joint Implementation. A Cooperative Approach to Global Climate Change
Greenhouse Gas Abatement and Burden Sharing: An Analysis of
Efficiency and Equity Issues for Australia (Res. Rep. 66), 1995. Contact
Bur. Industry Econ., GPO Box 9839, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia (tel: 61 6 276
2340; fax: 61 6 276 2372).
Perspectives on Transatlantic Relations, 1995. Compiled by the
Forward Studies Unit of the European Union Commission, the Brookings Inst., and
the Inst. for Sci. & Politics (Germany). Contact Christoph Bail (tel: 32 2
295 4099; fax: 32 2 295 2305).
Analyzes the future of relations between the U.S. and EU, concluding that
environmental concerns, especially climate change, are a possible cause for
conflict. Coordinating responses to these challenges would require strong
political determination, which may currently be absent in the U.S.; the EU would
need to strengthen institutional capacity. According to Intl. Environ. Rptr.
(p. 947, Dec. 13, 1995), Stuart Eizenstadt, U.S. Ambassador to the EU, said the
U.S. has not relinquished its leadership role in environmental issues; the EU
and the U.S. could consider a CO2 emissions trading scheme.
World in Transition: The Way Towards Solving Global Environmental
Problems, German Panel on Global Environmental Change, Oct. 1995. Available
from German Environ. Ministry, POB 120629, D-53048, Bonn, Ger. (tel: 49 228 305
2015; fax: 49 228 305 2016).
Calls for the World Trade Organization to assume a global environmental
police function, and to avoid global warming, for global CO2 emissions to be
reduced by 1% per year for more than 15 years. Also recommends that the
industrial world play a lead role in CO2 emissions reduction because it accounts
for 80% of the world's energy use. International agreements need to be enacted
and strengthened. Calls for joint implementation by industrialized and
developing countries to reduce CO2 emissions. (See Intl. Environ. Rptr.,
pp. 861-862, Nov. 15, 1995.)
Environment in the European Union 1995: Report for the Review of the
Fifth Environmental Action Program, 150 pp., $33/Ecu 25, Oct. 1995. Order
from Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985
To meet environmental targets and make significant progress toward
sustainable development, the EU needs an accelerated environmental policy that
should focus particularly on transport and reduce the demand for mobility. This
sector showed a steady increase since 1992; freight transport has nearly
doubled, and passenger transport is forecast to increase by 50% from 1990 to
2010. (See Global Environ. Change Rep., p. 4, Oct. 20, 1995.)
The Climate Change Debate: Seven Principles for Practical Policies,
1994. Available in English, French and German. Contact European Round Table of
Industrialists, Ave. H. Jaspar 113, 1050 Brussels, Belg. (tel: 32 2 534 3100;
fax: 32 2 534 7348).
Potential Effect of HFC Policy on Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions in
2035 (Rep. 773001002), C. Kroeze, 29 pp., Sep. 1994. Contact Natl. Inst.
Public Health & Environ. Protect.-RIVM, POB 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Neth.
(tel: 31 30 749111; fax: 31 30 742971).
Looked at the projected level of global emissions of HFCs in the year 2035,
and to what extent an HCFC phase-out could affect HFC emission. If HFCs are to
be used to replaced CFCs without restriction their global emissions will
increase to 1931 Mton CO2 equivalents; if they are also used as substitutes for
HCFCs, that level could be as high as 4665 Mton CO2 equivalents. Also suggests
restriction to essential uses, avoidance of HFCs with high global warming
potential, better housekeeping, recycling, and restriction to closed
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations