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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1996

REPORTS...
POLICY


Item #d96mar40

Environmental Performance in OECD Countries: Progress in the 1990s, 66 pp., Feb. 1996, $19/FF90/DM26 (OECD).

Environmental policies have led to a better environment without major economic costs, but economic, transport, energy and agricultural policies should be more environmentally conscious. To meet current and future commitments, countries must move quickly to integrate environmental and economic policies, especially in these sectors, and provide price signals that reflect social and environmental costs rather than environmentally damaging subsidies.


Item #d96mar41

Integrating Environment and Economy: Progress in the 1990s, 62 pp., Feb. 1996, $19/FF90/DM26 (OECD).

Focuses on the environmentally-sensitive energy, transport and agricultural sectors, emphasizing how environmental policy can be linked with fiscal, employment and trade policies. There has been progress in some areas, for example reform of some tax regimes and reduction of some environmentally harmful subsidies. Suggests several important issues that still must be addressed.


Item #d96mar42

Implementation Strategies for Environmental Taxes, 94 pp., Feb., 1996, $46/FF235/DM68 (OECD).

Ecotaxes provide an effective economic instrument to integrate environmental protection into the economy by creating an incentive to reduce pollution. But their implementation raises a number of problems, which this report analyzes.


Item #d96mar43

Defusing the "Population Bomb" with Free Markets (Policy Study 129), T. Lambert, 35 pp., Feb. 1996. Contact Center for the Study of American Business, Campus Box 1208, Washington Univ., St. Louis MO 63130 (tel: 314 935 5630).

Debunks doomsayers' assertions that a growing population will soon squander the Earth's finite natural resources. The world is not short of the living space or agricultural land needed to support projected population increases, and population growth does not imply intolerable levels of pollution. Given economic freedom, individuals have made, and will continue to make, decisions that allow the Earth to meet the needs of growing populations. Public policy should not emphasize increased spending on controversial family planning programs, but should focus on encouraging economic freedom around the world.


Item #d96mar44

Marking a Milestone in Ozone Protection: Learning from the CFC Phaseout, E. Cook, Jan. 1996, $7 (WRI).

A summary for a book-length report to be published in April. Many U.S. industries were able to eliminate CFCs more quickly, at lower cost, or with greater environmental benefits that experts once predicted. This occurred in the U.S. because of the use of market-based instruments such as excise taxes, entrepreneurial government initiatives, corporate leadership and competition, and scientific advances coupled with public education. The U.S. experience provides important lessons that can be applied to other environmental challenges; the disappointing experience of countries trying to meet greenhouse gas emission goals stems mainly from the absence of an enforceable target.


Item #d96mar45

The Global Climate is Changing, 1996. The summary and a key chapter in English; the full report is in Swedish. Contact Tom Hedlund, Swed. Environ. Protect. Agency, Blekholmsterrasen 36, S-106 48 Stockholm, Swed. (fax: 46 8 202925).

Outlines possibilities for a protocol to the climate convention. Options that are analyzed for effectiveness and applicability to Sweden include per capita emissions targets, percentage of CO2 reductions, joint implementation and harmonized carbon taxes.


Item #d96mar46

Climate Change, Economic Instruments, and Income Distribution, 76 pp., Dec. 1995, $19. Implementation Strategies for Environmental Taxes, 150 pp., $46, Dec. 1995. Both available from OECD.

The first report assesses income distribution associated with taxes or tradeable permits to respond to the threat of climate change, in terms of the levels of individual income groups, economic sectors or nations. Suggests broad approaches for mitigating or compensating adverse effects. The second report, drawing from the experience of OECD countries, reviews implementation and sets down considerations needed for successful implementation of ecotaxes.


Item #d96mar47

The following 1995 reports are part of the GEC Working Paper Series and are available at $9/5 per copy from CSERGE.

Institutional Adaptation to Global Environmental Change, A. Jordan, T. O'Riordan. (I): Social Institutions, Policy Change and Social Learning (GEC 95-20), 41 pp., and (II): Core Elements of an "Institutional" Theory (GEC 95-21), 36 pp.

Valuing Air Pollution in the National Accounts (GEC 95-22), K. Hamilton, G. Atkinson, 25 pp.

Social Accounting, Genuine Saving and Measures of Economic Welfare (GEC 95-23), G. Atkinson, 19 pp.

Verifying Compliance with an Unmonitorable Climate Convention (GEC 95-24), S. Subak, 40 pp.

Joint Implementation and Uniform Mixing (GEC 95-29), R.J. Heintz, R.S.J. Tol, 20 pp.

Recent Advancements in the Economic Assessment of Climate Change Costs (GEC 95-31), S. Fankhauser, R. Tol, 21 pp.

North-South Transfers, Incremental Costs and the Rio Environment Conventions (GEC 95-33), R. Cervigni, 37 pp.


Item #d96mar48

The following two reports are available from ABARE:

Global Climate Change: Economic Dimensions of a Cooperative International Policy Response Beyond 2000, Oct. 1995, US $29/AUS $39.

Used the dynamic general equilibrium model, MEGABARE, to perform an equitable burden sharing study with respect to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Global Environ. Change Rep. (pp. 4-5, Oct. 20, 1995) reported that preliminary results presented at conferences had generated controversy. The study suggests that the most economic way to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions globally is to equalize the marginal costs of abatement across all countries; these would be relatively low in developing countries. Critics claimed the model is flawed and the study only serves to bolster Australia's current position.

Joint Implementation. A Cooperative Approach to Global Climate Change (95-23), 1995.


Item #d96mar49

Greenhouse Gas Abatement and Burden Sharing: An Analysis of Efficiency and Equity Issues for Australia (Res. Rep. 66), 1995. Contact Bur. Industry Econ., GPO Box 9839, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia (tel: 61 6 276 2340; fax: 61 6 276 2372).


Item #d96mar50

Perspectives on Transatlantic Relations, 1995. Compiled by the Forward Studies Unit of the European Union Commission, the Brookings Inst., and the Inst. for Sci. & Politics (Germany). Contact Christoph Bail (tel: 32 2 295 4099; fax: 32 2 295 2305).

Analyzes the future of relations between the U.S. and EU, concluding that environmental concerns, especially climate change, are a possible cause for conflict. Coordinating responses to these challenges would require strong political determination, which may currently be absent in the U.S.; the EU would need to strengthen institutional capacity. According to Intl. Environ. Rptr. (p. 947, Dec. 13, 1995), Stuart Eizenstadt, U.S. Ambassador to the EU, said the U.S. has not relinquished its leadership role in environmental issues; the EU and the U.S. could consider a CO2 emissions trading scheme.


Item #d96mar51

World in Transition: The Way Towards Solving Global Environmental Problems, German Panel on Global Environmental Change, Oct. 1995. Available from German Environ. Ministry, POB 120629, D-53048, Bonn, Ger. (tel: 49 228 305 2015; fax: 49 228 305 2016).

Calls for the World Trade Organization to assume a global environmental police function, and to avoid global warming, for global CO2 emissions to be reduced by 1% per year for more than 15 years. Also recommends that the industrial world play a lead role in CO2 emissions reduction because it accounts for 80% of the world's energy use. International agreements need to be enacted and strengthened. Calls for joint implementation by industrialized and developing countries to reduce CO2 emissions. (See Intl. Environ. Rptr., pp. 861-862, Nov. 15, 1995.)


Item #d96mar52

Environment in the European Union 1995: Report for the Review of the Fifth Environmental Action Program, 150 pp., $33/Ecu 25, Oct. 1995. Order from Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxemborg.

To meet environmental targets and make significant progress toward sustainable development, the EU needs an accelerated environmental policy that should focus particularly on transport and reduce the demand for mobility. This sector showed a steady increase since 1992; freight transport has nearly doubled, and passenger transport is forecast to increase by 50% from 1990 to 2010. (See Global Environ. Change Rep., p. 4, Oct. 20, 1995.)


Item #d96mar53

The Climate Change Debate: Seven Principles for Practical Policies, 1994. Available in English, French and German. Contact European Round Table of Industrialists, Ave. H. Jaspar 113, 1050 Brussels, Belg. (tel: 32 2 534 3100; fax: 32 2 534 7348).


Item #d96mar54

Potential Effect of HFC Policy on Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2035 (Rep. 773001002), C. Kroeze, 29 pp., Sep. 1994. Contact Natl. Inst. Public Health & Environ. Protect.-RIVM, POB 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Neth. (tel: 31 30 749111; fax: 31 30 742971).

Looked at the projected level of global emissions of HFCs in the year 2035, and to what extent an HCFC phase-out could affect HFC emission. If HFCs are to be used to replaced CFCs without restriction their global emissions will increase to 1931 Mton CO2 equivalents; if they are also used as substitutes for HCFCs, that level could be as high as 4665 Mton CO2 equivalents. Also suggests restriction to essential uses, avoidance of HFCs with high global warming potential, better housekeeping, recycling, and restriction to closed applications.

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