February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBER 5, MAY 1996
GENERAL INTEREST & COMMENTARY
"Public Expectation as an Element of Human Perception of Climate
Change," M. Rebetez (Dept. Geog., Univ. Lausanne, BFSH1, Dorigny, CH-1015
Lausanne, Switz.), Clim. Change, 32(4), 495-509, Apr. 1996.
Human expectations regarding weather and climate sometimes lead to
perceptions of climate change that are not supported by objective evidence. This
paper analyzes two typical complaints about current climate in Switzerland (lack
of snow in winter and lack of sunshine in summer), and demonstrates that a major
problem of public perception of climate in the middle latitudes is the strong
variability of climatic parameters. Suggests a means of presenting climatic data
that would indicate this variability, help overcome confusion related to it, and
stress the fact that short-term climatic extremes do not necessarily indicate a
long-term shift in climate.
"The Sun and Climate," J. Lean (U.S. Naval Res. Lab.,
Washington D.C.; e-mail: email@example.com), D. Rind, Consequences,
2(1), 26-36, 1996.
A review for non-specialists. The 11-year sunspot cycle causes a change of
less than 0.1° C in the Earth's temperature, but what is known of solar
behavior before 1979 suggests that other changes of possibly greater amplitude
also occur. These long-term solar variations are incompletely understood, but
could have contributed about 15% of the documented 0.5° C global warming
since 1850. With the highest estimates of possible solar changes, the Sun could
diminish the IPCC mid-range projected warming of 2° C by about
"Remembrance of Things Past: Greenhouse Lessons from the Geologic
Record," T.J. Crowley (Dept. Oceanog., Texas A & M Univ., College Sta.
TX 77843), ibid., 2-11.
A review for non-specialists. For most of the last two million years, there
is little evidence for global temperatures more than one degree higher than
those of the present warm interglacial period. The possibility of an enhanced
greenhouse effect thus comes at a time of high temperatures that are rare in the
span of human history. Moreover, the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases are today as high as any that are known in the 200,000 years
for which measurements are available, and we know that they played a significant
role in climatic changes of the past. While questions remain regarding possible,
ameliorating feedbacks from other elements of the climate system, all that is
known from the record of the past confirms a direct connection between
greenhouse gases and surface temperatures.
Two related items in Nature, 379(6565), Feb. 8, 1996:
"Satellite Confirmation of the Dominance of Chlorofluorocarbons in the
Global Stratospheric Chlorine Budget," J.M. Russell III (NASA-Langley Res.
Ctr., Hampton VA 23681), M. Luo et al., 526-529. The present concentration of
ozone-destroying stratospheric chlorine is more than five times that expected
from known natural emissions from the oceans and from biomass burning, yet the
political sensitivity of the ozone depletion issue has generated a
re-examination of the evidence. This paper reports a four-year global time
series of satellite observations of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride in
the stratosphere, which shows conclusively that releases of CFCsrather
than other anthropogenic or natural emissions are responsible for the
recent global increases in stratospheric chlorine concentrations. The results
implicate CFCs beyond a reasonable doubt as dominating ozone depletion in the
"There's Safety in Numbers," W. Brune (Dept. Meteor., Pennsylvania
State Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), 486-487. Discusses how the previous paper
strengthens the already powerful scientific case that underlies the Montreal
"Ozone Depletion: A View from the Grass Roots," N.D. Paul
(Inst. Environ. & Biol. Sci., Lancaster Univ., Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK), Atmos.
Environ., 30(14), i-ii, July 1996. (A contribution to the journal's "New
Directions" section. Submissions, 1000 words or less, can be e-mailed to
A biologist decries the lack of understanding of the ecological effects of
increased levels of UV-B. Without such information, how can scientists hope to
continue to convince legislators (or themselves) that the only safe option is
the no-risk strategy of phasing out ozone-depleting substances?
"Time to Champion Global Data," Nature, 380(6574),
467, Apr. 11, 1996.
An editorial on the need for enhanced monitoring of atmospheric and other
types of geophysical data, and the current lack of resource commitment. A modest
target would be a well-distributed network of 10 multi-instrumented geophysical
reference stations, in operation three years from now.
"Climate Change Calls for Action Now," J. Houghton (Chair,
Royal Commission on Environ. Pollut.), Chem. & Industry, p. 232,
Mar. 18, 1996.
Outlines the message of the recent IPCC second assessment, and related
conclusions of a World Energy Council study. The drastic reductions needed in
CO2 emissions will require commitment from all sectors of society. The real
challenge is to communicate that the switch to alternative forms of energy will
take many decades, so action must commence now.
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Index of Abbreviations