February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 9, NUMBERS 10-11, OCTOBER-NOVEMBER 1996
Electricity Generation and Global CO2 Emission Reduction,"
L.D.D. Harvey (Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto ON M5S
3G3, Can.; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy,
21(7), 583-595, July 1996.
Compares the relative costs and CO2 emission reduction benefits
of three alternatives to present electrical generation: advanced centralized
fossil fuel generation, hybrid photovoltaic-fossil fuel generation, and solar
generation with hydrogen storage. In the latter, some photovoltaic arrays would
provide current electricity demand, while others would be used to produce
hydrogen for storage and later use in fuel cells to generate electricity. The
carbon tax required to make this approach competitive with fossil fuels ranges
from $70-660 per ton. One possible drawback is leakage of hydrogen from storage
into the atmosphere and eventually the stratosphere, resulting in the formation
of water vapor there. However, rough calculations show that for a plausible
leakage rate of 0.5% per year from underground storage, the resulting global
warming effect would be only about 1% of the impact of the hybrid system.
"Hydrogen as a
Future Transportation Fuel," G.D. Berry (Dept. Materials Sci., Univ.
Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), A.D. Pasternak et al., Energy,
21(4), 289-303, Apr. 1996.
A smooth transition from a petroleum-driven transportation system to
clean-burning vehicles with the performance and range of today's gasoline cars
is plausible using high-efficiency, hydrogen-fueled, hybrid-electric vehicles.
An economic and technical analysis shows that as market penetration of hydrogen
vehicles increases, fueling costs would become competitive with today's gasoline
vehicles. Hydrogen production at filling stations, vehicle fleets, and homes
would circumvent many start-up issues and would use existing natural gas and/or
electricity energy infrastructures.
Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project [EQHHPP]: Demonstration Phase," B. Drolet
(Ressources Naturelles, Govt. Québec, Charlesbourg, Québec, Can.),
J. Gretz et al., Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy, 21(4), 305-316, Apr.
The present EQHHPP phase focuses on advancing hydrogen applications in
future potential markets related to transportation. Individual projects for 1992
to 1997 mainly concern the use of hydrogen in airborne and urban transportation
and involve hydrogen safety, regulations and acceptability, and socio-economic
Three items in Intl.
J. Hydrogen Energy, 20(12), Dec. 1995:
"Cost Effective Integration of Hydrogen in Energy Systems with CO2
Constraints," P.A. Okken, P. Lako, J.R. Ybema (Policy Studies, Energy Res.
Foundation ECN, POB 1, 1755 ZG Petten, Neth.), 975-985. Uses the MARKAL (MARKet
ALlocation) model to illustrate the integration of hydrogen in national energy
systems in four extreme scenarios, reflecting four technological mainstreams
(energy conservation, renewables, nuclear, and CO2 removal).
Hydrogen is cost-effective in all scenarios given higher CO2
reduction targets, and would be produced from fossil fuels or from water and
electricity or heat, depending on the scenario.
"Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: The Age of Energy Gases,"
R.A. Hefner III (GHK Co., 6305 Waterford Blvd., S. 470, Oklahoma City OK 73118),
945-948. To sustain economic growth, energy systems must increase economic
productivity and competitiveness, put more people to work, and reduce
environmental degradation. At the end of the 20th century, state-of-the-art
energy systems are in transition from liquid oil to (gaseous) methane/natural
gas. This new "Age of Energy Gases" will end with totally clean
hydrogen, using basically the same infrastructure as natural gas.
"Reformulated Gasoline: Cleaner Air on the Road to Nowhere," J.S.
Cannon (INFORM Inc., 120 Wall St., New York NY 10005), 987-994. U.S. legislation
that takes effect in 1995 requiring the sale of cleaner reformulated gasoline in
heavily polluted areas fails to take into account the world's dwindling reserves
of oil, the eroding economics of using oil, and the political and military costs
of maintaining access to non-domestic supplies. In contrast, natural gas offers
greater emission reductions than reformulated gasoline, at lower fuel costs and
with greater domestic supply and energy security. In the long term, the
expansion of an infrastructure that would support natural gas vehicles could
facilitate transition to hydrogen which, when produced from renewable sources,
could become the optimum fuel for a sustainable energy economy.
Option for Energy: A Review of Technical, Environmental and Economic Aspects,"
G. Nicoletti (Dept. Math., Univ. Della Calabria, 87030 Arcavacata di Rende (CS),
Italy), Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy,
20(10), 759-765, Oct. 1995.
Compares hydrogen as a fuel with methane, coal and gasoline. In terms of
overall technical and ecological effectiveness, hydrogen is clearly superior,
but from the standpoint of safety, fossil fuels (except gasoline) are generally
better. In terms of cost, fossil fuels have a slight advantage. Concludes that
overall, the benefits of hydrogen justify its use as a future energy option.
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