February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1997
TRENDS IN EARTH SYSTEM PROPERTIES
"Trends in the Surface Meridional Temperature Gradient,"
A.I. Gitelman, J.S. Risbey et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(10),
1243-1246, May 15, 1997. (See Prof. Pubs./Of Gen. Interest, Global
Climate Change Digest, July 1997.)
"Aerosols and Climate: Anthropogenic Emissions and Trends for
50 Years," M.E. Wolf, G.M. Hidy, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D10),
11,113-11,121, May 27, 1997. (See Prof. Pubs./Of Gen. Interest,
Global Climate Change Digest, July 1997.)
"The 1995 Chicago Heat Wave: How Likely Is a Recurrence?"
(See Prof. Pubs./Gen. Interest & Policy, this Global Climate
Change Digest issue--August 1997.)
"Ocean Chemistry of the Fossil Fuel CO2 Signal: the
Haline Signal of 'Business as Usual,'" P.G. Brewer (Monterey Bay
Aquarium Res. Inst., POB 628, Moss Landing CA 95039; e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org), Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(11), 1367-1369,
June 1, 1997.
Calculates the projected chemical and physical impacts of increasing
atmospheric CO2 on surface ocean waters. As CO2
rises through the next century, it will cause an apparent increase in
salinity, and reaction with carbonate ion will increase the volume of sea
water. Adding to this volume increase is the water released to the
atmosphere (and then to the ocean) from fossil fuel combustion. Combined,
these factors lead to a sea level rise of about 1.6 mm.
"Analysis of Merged SMMR-SSMI Time Series of Arctic and Antarctic Sea
Ice Parameters 1978-1995," E. Bjorgo (Nansen Environ. Ctr., Edvard
Greigsvei 3a, N-5037 Bergen-Solheimsviken, Norway; e-mail:
Einar.Bjorgo@nrsc.no), O.M. Johannessen, M.W. Miles,Geophys. Res.
Lett., 24(4), 413-416, Feb. 15, 1997.
Combining data from two different satellites strengthens earlier
assertions of reduced ice cover. Results are consistent with GCM
simulations that suggest the retreat of sea ice cover under global warming
"Tropospheric Water Vapor Climatology and Trends over North America:
1973-93," R.J. Ross (ARL/NOAA, 1315 East-West Hwy., Silver Spring MD
20910), W.P. Elliott,J. Clim., 9(12), 3561-3674, Dec.
Annual trends of surface-500 mb precipitable water were generally
increasing over the region except over northeastern Canada. Annual trends
in dew point were generally of the same sign, but larger in magnitude.
Seasonal trends of precipitable water varied spatially more than the
annual trends and fewer were statistically significant.
"Long-Term Variability in the Low-Level Inversion Layer over the
Arctic Ocean," J.D.W. Kahl (Dept. Geosci., Univ. Wisconsin, POB 413,
Milwaukee WI 53201; e-mail: email@example.com), D.A. Martinez, N.A.
Zaitzeva,Intl. J. Climatol., 16(11), 1297-1313, Nov. 1996.
Examination of nearly 30,000 Arctic Ocean radiosonde and dropsonde
temperature profiles for the period 1950-1990 indicates a strengthening of
the thermal stability of the inversion layer in fall and winter. This
strengthening is in agreement with a recent study describing Arctic Ocean
temperature trends, but is in contrast to GCM predictions of polar
amplification of greenhouse warming.
"North Pole Ice Thickness and Association with Ice Motion History
1977-1992," T.L. Shy (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Illinois, 105 S.
Gregory Ave., Urbana IL 61801; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), J.E. Walsh,Geophys.
Res. Lett., 23(21), 2975-2978, Oct. 15, 1996.
Ice drafts measured by U.S. Navy submarine sonar, combined with Arctic
Ocean drifting buoy data, show no systematic decrease in ice thickness
over the 15-year period.
"Historical Snow Cover Variability in the Great Plains Region of the
USA: 1910 Through to 1993," M.G. Hughes (Dept. Geog., Rutgers Univ.,
New Brunswick NJ 08903; e-mail: email@example.com), D.A.
Robinson,Intl. J. Climatol., 16(9), 1005-1018, Sep. 1996.
Considerable annual and decadal variations of snow cover in this region
are embedded in a trend toward greater seasonal snow cover, from 29 days
in the early part of the century to 38 days in recent decades. The
reliance on snow cover for hydrological and agricultural purposes in the
Great Plains, the sensitivity of the near-surface climate to snow cover
conditions there, and projected warming and drying under greenhouse
warming necessitate further study of snow cover variability there.
"Ice Core Record of Fatty Acids over the Past 450 Years in Greenland,"
K. Kawamura (Inst. of Low Temp. Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo 060, Japan;
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), I. Suzuki et al.,Geophys.
Res. Lett., 23(19), 2665-2668, Sep. 15, 1996.
Total concentrations of fatty acids (which originate from terrestrial
higher plant waxes, soil particles and marine organisms) were relatively
constant in the 16th to 19th centuries. However, they significantly
increased in the 20th century with maxima in the 1930s-1950s and 1980s,
suggesting an enhanced sea-to-air emission of organic matter and
subsequent transport over Greenland. The increased concentrations are
consistent with increased Arctic temperature.
"Near-Surface Wind over the Global Ocean 1949-1988," M.N. Ward
(CIMMS, Univ. Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd, Rm. 1242, Norman OK 73019), B.J.
Hoskins,J. Clim., 9(8), 1877-1895, Aug. 1996.
Near-surface wind over the ocean is a key climate variable, but the
reliability of ship reports now held in large databases is controversial,
particularly the reality of an upward trend in reported wind strength
since the 1940s. This paper uses an improved method for deriving
near-surface wind from sea level pressure data, and finds no globally
averaged trend in circulation strength, although there are regional
patterns of both upward and downward trends.
"Nonlinear Dynamics and the Great Salt Lake: A Predictable Indicator
of Regional Climate," H.D.I. Abarbanel (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., Mail
Code 0402, La Jolla CA 92093), U. Lall et al.,Energy, 21(7-8),
655-665, July-Aug. 1996.
The Great Salt Lake drains 90,000 square kilometers, acting as a spatial
filter of climatic details. This study used methods from nonlinear
dynamics to examine a record of measurements of lake volume maintained
since 1847, concluding that it is a record of the natural variation of
climate. The analysis shows that if there is any human influence on
climate in the region, its effect is not measurable on such large-scale
"Long-Term Trends of Some Characteristics of the Earth's Atmosphere:
I. Experimental Results," G.V. Givishvili (Inst. Terrestrial
Magnetism, Russian Acad. Sci., Troitsk, Moscow oblast, 142092 Russia),
L.N. Leschenko et al., Izvestiya Atmos. & Ocean Phys.,32(3),
303-312, 1996. In English.
Reviews trends of the following parameters, estimated by various groups
using various methods, over the last 3-5 decades: stratospheric and
mesospheric temperatures, hydroxyl emission and rotational temperature in
the mesopause, atomic oxygen emission in the thermosphere, and electron
density in the E and F2 region of the ionosphere. Results point to global
changes in the middle and upper atmosphere.
"A Long-Term Trend in Sea Ice Thickness Variation in the Arctic
Basin," A.P. Nagurnyi (Russian Arctic & Antarctic Res. Inst.),Russian
Meteor. & Hydrol., No. 6, 39-42, 1995.
Uses the linear theory of free oscillations of sea ice as a flexible
plate floating in liquid to determine the effective thickness of sea ice
from measurements of its resonance oscillation frequency. Effective ice
thickness decreased 12-14 cm from 1970 to 1992, which is 3-4% of the mean
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