February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 7, JULY 1997
OZONE DEPLETION: DISTRIBUTION AND TRENDS
"Ten Years of Ozonesonde Measurements at the South Pole:
Implications for Recovery of Springtime Antarctic Ozone," D.J. Hofmann
(CMDL/NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303; e-mail: email@example.com),
S.J. Oltmans et al., J. Geophys. Res., 102(D7), 8931-8943, Apr.
Examined data from the past decade for signs of trends and indicators that
can be used to detect Antarctic ozone recovery in the future. The authors found
several such indicators based on the vertical profile of ozone, and they
estimate that if the Montreal Protocol is followed, recovery of the Antarctic
ozone hole may be conclusively detected as early as the year 2008.
"The Ozone Hole over Punta Arenas, Chile," V.W.J.H. Kirchoff
(Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, C.P. 515, 12201-970 Sao José dos
Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), C.A.R. Caiccia S., F.
Zamorano B, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D7), 8945-8953, Apr. 20, 1997.
Examination of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data from 1979 to
1992 shows that this city experienced a downward trend of ozone twice the global
annual average, and five times the average for October only. Ground-based
measurement of UVB radiation shows that ozone hole events in October increased
levels a factor of two or three over background, representing levels near the
local summer maximum but not above those normally observed at low-latitude
"Evidence of Substantial Ozone Depletion in Winter 1995/96 over
Northern Norway," G. Hansen (Norwegian Inst. Air Res., POB 1245, N-9001
Tromso, Norway; e-mail: email@example.com), T. Svenoe et al., Geophys. Res.
Lett., 24(7), 799-802, Apr. 1, 1997.
Extremely low ozone, up to 50% below the long-term average, was observed in
Northern Norway throughout most of the 1995-96 winter until mid-April. The
character of the depletion and comparison with model data imply that chemical
destruction of unprecedented magnitude was the main cause.
"Springtime Antarctic Total Ozone Measurements in the Early 1970s
from the BUV Instrument on Nimbus 4," R.S. Stolarski (NASA-Goddard, Code
916, Greenbelt MD 20771), G.J. Labow, R.D. McPeters, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
24(5), 591-594, Mar. 1, 1997.
Re-examination of early satellite-based ozone data indicates a distribution
in agreement with concurrent ground-based measurements, demonstrating that the
lack of an "ozone hole" in those measurements is not an artifact of
their location. Neither was there evidence of unusually warm stratospheric
temperatures. Both results are consistent with the development of chemical ozone
destruction starting in the 1980s.
"Trends in Stratospheric and Free Tropospheric Ozone," N.R.P.
Harris (European Ozone Res. Coordinating Unit, 14 Union Rd., Cambridge CB2 1HE,
UK; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), G. Ancellet et al., J. Geophys.
Res., 102(D1), 1571-1590, Jan. 20, 1997.
This review updates the latest major review of the topic by WMO, published
in 1995. Trends from 1979 to 1994 in the midlatitudes are significantly negative
in all seasons, particularly winter/spring (up to 7% per decade). Trends in the
southern midlatitudes are similar but somewhat smaller. In the tropics, trends
are slightly negative but at the edge of 95% significance.
"The Antarctic Ozone Hole--1994," A. Downey (Bur. Meteor., GPO
Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia), R. Atkinson et al., Aust. Met.
Mag., 45(2), 123-129, 1996.
Briefly describes the processes which lead to the formation of the 1994
hole, its characteristics, and trends in its severity. Distinguishing features
were abnormally high ozone levels in mid-latitudes, and strong asymmetry in late
October. The hole appears to have peaked in severity because all the ozone in
the 13-20 km region is being destroyed.
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