February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1997
International Energy Agency Statement on the Energy Dimension of
Climate Change, 23 pp., May 1997 (IEA).
Summarizes the topic for all participants in the U.N. Framework Convention
on Climate Change as preparation for the Third Conference of Parties (Dec.
1997). Describes the global context and trends, and insights on key parameters
to reduce greenhouse emissions in a cost-effective manner. Does not make
specific recommendations, in contrast to the following European Union document
with a similar name.
The Energy Dimension of Climate Change, European Commission,
1997. Contact Costas Verros; tel: 32 2 2 296 5680.
Intended to stimulate debate before the next conference of parties to the
climate convention (Kyoto, Dec. 1997). A business-as-usual projection shows that
the European Union's CO2 emissions are expected to grow by 8% from 1990 levels
by 2010. Meeting the EU's target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 15% by
2010 could be extremely difficult and costly. To do so, policies and measures
will have to be ambitious and could lead to a reorientation of society's
objectives; radical policy changes may be needed. (See Global Environ.
Change Rep., p. 4, May 23, 1997.)
IEA Policy Reviews. Each year, the International Energy Agency
reviews changes in policy, market developments, and energy sector trends of
member countries, some in detail. The two 1997 reviews that follow commend
Australia and New Zealand for their market-oriented energy policies, which
could serve as a model for regulatory reform in other IEA countries. For copies
contact IEA or OECD.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries-Australia-1997 Review, 145 pp.,
Mar. 1997, $44/FF225/DM66.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries-New Zealand-1997 Review, 109 pp.,
May 1997, $32/FF165/DM48.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries-1996 Review (Compendium), 353 pp.,
Oct. 1996, $75/FF380/DM110. This report summarizes separate, detailed reviews
conducted in 1996 for Canada, France, Portugal, the Netherlands, Spain and
Sweden. (Separate volumes present the full reviews for those countries.) This
report also includes short annual reviews for the other 17 member countries, and
discusses topics, including climate change, that are common to all IEA
The Role of IEA Governments in Energy, 358 pp., June 1996,
$94/FF475/DM138. This latest in a series of surveys finds that governments are
relying more on market forces to achieve energy policy goals, but the role of
government in setting market rules is becoming more important, for both long-
and short-term policy.
U.S. Energy 1997-Energy and a Changing World. The 10th Annual
Assessment of United States Energy Policy, 16 pp., May 1997 (USEA). Also
available is this organization's 1995 Annual Report: Our Nation's Energy
Partnership Program, 9 pp., plus appendices, 1996.
Presents and discusses trends in all types of major energy supplies, as well
as in renewable energy and energy efficiency, and makes several recommendations.
The largest environmental issue of concern to the energy industry is the
possibility of climate change through greenhouse gas emissions. Recommends
pursuing rational policies that make economic sense while simultaneously
reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary industry programs to contain
greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in joint implementation, should be
ACEEE Reports. The following are some of the latest reports
issued by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE); see
their publications catalog for others.
Alternative Approaches to Offsetting the Competitive Burden of a
Carbon/Energy Tax (E972), J.A. Hoerner, 40 pp., 1997, $14. A round table of
industry representatives estimated the impact of carbon/energy taxes on energy
intensive manufacturing industries. Explored are offset strategies, tax credits,
energy efficiency investment, labor taxes and various tax adjustments.
Review of State Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D)
Programs (E973), M. Pye, S. Nadel, 75 pp., 1997, $17. Covers status, funding
mechanisms, achievements, changing roles, and rationals. Evaluates different
approaches to energy efficiency RD&D and technology transfer.
Energy Efficiency and Economic Development in New York, New Jersey, and
Pennsylvania (E971), S. Nadel, S. Laitner et al., 130 pp., 1997, $25.
Increased investments in energy efficiency investments could generate 160,400
jobs by 2010. Makes recommendations on achieving this.
What Have We Learned from Early Market Transformation Efforts?
(E964), M. Suozzo, S. Nadel, 34 pp., 1996, $13. A review of 11 market
transformation efforts appears to be having a positive market impact as
evidenced by increased sales of high-efficiency products, and changes in
manufacturer, dealer and consumer behavior.
Policy Options for Improving Existing Housing Efficiency (A971), M.
Suozzo, K. Wang, 80 pp., 1997, $18. Communities, utilities and states have been
using programs including ordinances, retrofit loan programs, and energy rating
systems linked to energy-efficient mortgage products. Presents case studies and
discusses how various options can be used to maximize efficiency improvements.
Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs in a Restructured Utility
Industry (U972), S. Nadel, J. Eto, C. Goldman, 40 pp., 1997, $14. Explains
why these programs are still needed and illustrates the choices policy makers
face in deciding their funding, administration, priorities, and structures.
Customer Financing for Utility Energy-Efficiency Programs (U965), M.
Pye, 40 pp., 1996, $13. Examines the results from recent financing programs
including loans, leases, shared savings, and energy-service charges. Makes
recommendations for future programs.
Impacts of DOE-Developed Industrial Technologies (IE971), R.N.
Elliott, S. McGaragahn, K. Wang, 35 pp., 1997, $13. Looks at three examples and
addresses the importance of government-supported industrial RD&D.
Developing a Market Creation Program to Promote Efficient Cars and Light
Trucks (T971), J. DeCicco, 60 pp., $16, 1997. Although Americans say they
want "greener" motor vehicles, automakers have been slow to respond.
Proposes a coordinated procurement campaign involving government and business
fleet buyers and individuals, to demonstrate a demand for greener cars and
Recent Advances in Automotive Technology and the Cost-Effectiveness of
Fuel Economy Improvement (T963), J. DeCicco, M. Ross, 18 pp., 1996, $11.
Expands earlier analyses of the economics of automobile fuel economy
improvement. Projects gasoline savings and greenhouse gas emissions reductions
that could result.
Energy Subsidies in Europe, 1997 (Greenpeace Intl.). Prepared by
Inst. Environ. Studies, Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Neth.
For the European Union, its member states, and Norway and Sweden, compares
average annual direct subsidies for 1990-1995 that go to fossil fuels, nuclear
energy, and renewable energy. More than 90% go to fossil fuels and nuclear
power. Subsidies are only part of the picture; for example, a number of
governments have changed taxation or licensing to facilitate expansion or
exploitation of fossil fuels. The IPCC found that a 4-18% reduction in CO2
emissions could be achieved through subsidy removal.
Third Annual Report of the U.K.'s Panel on Sustainable
Development (96EP229), 1997, no charge (U.K. Dept. Environ.)
While praising Environment Secretary John Gummer's suggestion that all
developed countries cut CO2 emissions by 5-10% by 2000, states that much greater
reductions will be required later. Recommends a strategic energy policy that
promotes energy efficiency and conservation, incorporates costs relating to
climate factors into energy prices, and supports non-fossil-fuel-based energy
Green Paper on National Sustainable Energy Policy, 1997
(Australian Dept. Primary Industries). See the full text at
Conventional energy will remain the major source of energy globally and in
Australia for the foreseeable future, requiring technological advances and
adoption of rigorous environmental management systems to reduce the impact of
energy on the environment. For Australia, there is still considerable room for
further improvement even though energy efficiency has increased there.
Externalities and Coal-Fired Power Generation (IEAPER/29), L.
Clarke, Nov. 1996, £50 member countries (IEA Coal Res.).
Examines difficulties of environmental cost assessment. Properly done, these
valuations can provide decision makers with a useful additional tool for making
The New Geopolitics of Energy, J.V. Mitchell, P. Beck, M. Grubb,
120 pp., 1996, $15.95 (RIIA).
Looks at the regional political developments in the Middle East, the former
Soviet Union, and the Asia-Pacific region, and considers the implications of
recent changes for European energy policy.
Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy, European
Commission, 1997. Contact Costas Verros; tel: 32 2 2 296 5680.
Presents a strategy for the European Union to double its use of renewable
energy sources (from 6% to 12%). Proposed policy measures would not use tax
incentives, but are aimed at counteracting obstacles (such as market
imperfections, and the hidden environmental costs of conventional fuels), and
would exploit new technological developments that are economically viable.
China in the 21st Century. Long-Term Global Implications, 136
pp., 1996, $14/FF70/DM20 (OECD).
Offers an assessment of China's possible economic and social evolution to
the year 2020, and examines many internal difficulties including soaring energy
demand and mounting environmental problems. The rising demand for energy will
involve massive investment in modernizing mines and electricity supply, with
much of the financing coming from industrialized countries. Oil imports are
expected to be around 2.5 to 3.0 million barrels per day. Considers the
implications for oil markets and the environment.
Renewable Energy Strategy: Creating a New Momentum, 1996
This new renewable energy strategy for Canada is a consensus document
prepared in cooperation with industry that focuses on enhancing investments
through improving the tax system, promoting research and development in
renewables, and improving their markets. It emphasizes reliance on partnerships
with a wide array of stakeholders, and focuses primarily on renewable
technologies including solar, wind and geothermal.
NEA Activities in 1995: The 24th Annual Report of the OECD Nuclear
Energy Agency, 1996 (OECD).
Among the issues examined is the potential role of nuclear power in
combating climate change. Preliminary study results indicate that greenhouse gas
emissions from nuclear powered electricity plants are 40-100 times lower than
those from fossil fuel powered plants, and comparable to or lower than those
from renewable electricity generation.
Do Automobile Fuel Economy Standards Work? (Policy Brief 173), M.
Sykuta, 20 pp., Sep. 1996 (CSAB).
For a 44-year period, examined the relation between market forces,
particularly gasoline prices, and the demand for vehicle fuel efficiency and
gasoline consumption. Concludes that CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy)
standards in the U.S. have failed in their original objective-reducing gasoline
consumption, and suggests that a freeze, if not a repeal of these standards is
warranted. However, there was a significant relationship between gasoline price
and fuel efficiency.
Sustainability of Energy Crops in Europe: A Methodology Developed and
Applied (Rep. 234-1996), 1996, 40 guilders (ca. $23.50), in English. Dutch
Ctr. for Agric. & Environ. (CLM).
Compared 10 energy crops (eucalyptus, hemp, poplar, silage maize et al.)
grown in four European Regions, using 12 criteria for ecological sustainability
and three for socioeconomic sustainability, including the costs of abated CO2
emissions. Concludes that energy crops have positive net energy budgets and
positive net greenhouse budgets. In general energy crops for power generation
have less environmental impact and produce more energy than such crops used to
produce liquid fuels.
Voluntary Actions for Energy-Related CO2 Abatement, 150 pp., May
1996, $59 (OECD).
Voluntary actions could contribute significantly to achieving current and
future commitments under the U.S. Framework Convention on Climate Change in a
cost effective manner. The report, the first compilation of its kind, contains
detailed information on about 250 voluntary programs in 22 member countries and
the European Commission.
Renewable Power: The Cost and Potential of Conventional and
Low-Carbon Electricity Options in Western Europe, Executive Summary (Energy
Policy in the Greenhouse, Vol. II, Part 3D), F. Krause, J. Koomey, D.
Oliver, 13 pp., 1995 (IPSEP).
Used methods of engineering-economic analysis to examine experience with
current technology, and prospects for improved designs and lower manufacturing
costs. Finds that renewables have been making steady gains in cost effectiveness
when compared to conventional sources. Because R&D spending on renewables
has been much more cost effective than the much larger expenditures for nuclear
and goal generating options, several renewable options could become more cost
effective than fossil sources within a decade.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations