February 28, 2007
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Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1997
"Biomass Burning and the Atmosphere: Accomplishments and Research
Opportunities," A.M. Thompson (NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt MD 20771;
e-mail: email@example.com), Atmos. Environ., 30(19),
i-ii, Oct. 1996. [The author's group has a web site at
The number of field experiments devoted to biomass burning is increasing,
largely through the impetus of BIBEX (Biomass Burning Experiment), a core
project of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry component of IGBP.
Reviews progress and recommends two needed strategies: (1) process experiments
must be designed with a better modeling framework; (2) more attention is needed
on remote sensing, especially by incorporating existing capabilities into
"Historical Biomass Burning: Late 19th Century Pioneer Agriculture
Revolution in Northern Hemisphere Ice Core Data and Its Atmospheric
Interpretation," G. Holdsworth (Arctic Inst. of North America, Univ.
Calgary, Calgary AB T2N 1N4, Can.; e-mail gholdswo@acs. ucalgary.ca), K. Higuchi
et al., J. Geophys. Res., 101(D18), 23,317-23,334, Oct. 27,
Ice core data from Yukon and Greenland from about 1750 to 1950 show a clear
atmospheric signal of an episode of biomass burning between about 1850 and 1910,
which has been referred to elsewhere as the Pioneer Agriculture Revolution. The
relationships of this finding to other types of climatic data are explored. It
appears that factors associated with the burning, such as changes in surface
albedo and atmospheric dust and smoke, caused local cooling and temporarily
negated any radiative gas greenhouse warming.
Special issue: J. Geophys. Res., 101(D19), Oct.
30, 1996. Contains 59 papers on the Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment
(STARE): TRACE A and SAFARI. TRACE A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near
the Equator-Atlantic), a collaboration between Brazil and NASA, investigated
emissions from source regions in Brazil and the transport and photochemical
processing of the emitted trace gases over the continent and the tropical South
Atlantic. A complementary study, SAFARI (Southern African Fire-Atmosphere
Research Initiative), put together by a consortium of African, European and
American scientists, looked at emissions from fires and soils in southern
Africa, the meteorology over the subcontinent, and the ecological impact of
fires in the African savannas.
"Climate Implications of Biomass Burning Since the 19th Century in
Eastern North America," J.S. Clark (Dept. Botany, Duke Univ., Durham NC
27708), B.J. Stocks, P.J.H. Richard, Global Change Biology, 2(5),
433-442, Oct. 1996.
Recent predictions that tropospheric aerosols have counterbalanced
greenhouse warming assume aerosol emissions were low before 1850 and then
increased dramatically with industrialization of the Northern Hemisphere and
biomass burning in the tropics. This analysis of the lake sediment record of
emissions across North America indicates that aerosols could have actually decreased
during the 20th century, suggesting that the offset hypothesis requires further
analysis using different assumptions of past emissions. [The following entry
relates to this topic.]
"First Estimates of the Radiative Forcing of Aerosols Generated from
Biomass Burning Using Satellite Data," S.A. Christopher (Inst. Atmos. Sci.,
South Dakota Sch. of Mines & Technol., Rapid City SD 57701; e-mail: sundar@
cloud.ias.sdsmt.edu), D.V. Kilche et al., J. Geophys. Res., 101(D16),
21,265-21,273, Sep. 27, 1996.
Most previous studies have estimated the radiative impact of aerosols from
biomass burning by using some form of the radiative transfer equation. This
study measures the quantity using a combination of data from two satellite
instruments (AVHRR and ERBE), and finds net radiative forcing of about -36 W m-2
for areas with heavy aerosol loading, and about -16 W m-2 for optically thin
"Concentrations of Tropospheric Ozone from 1979 to 1992 over
Tropical Pacific South America from TOMS Data," Y. Jiang, Y.L. Yung (Div.
Glaciol. & Planetary Sci., Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91125), Science,
272(5262), 714-716, May 3, 1996.
Satellite measurements indicate that tropospheric ozone increased by 1.48 ±
0.40 percent per year over South America and the surrounding oceans. An increase
in biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere can account for this trend.
"Climatology and Trends of Tropospheric Ozone over the Eastern
Pacific Ocean: The Influences of Biomass Burning and Tropospheric Dynamics,"
J.H. Kim (Earth System Sci. Div., NASA/Marshall Space Flight Ctr., Huntsville AL
35812; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(25),
3723-3726, Dec. 15, 1996.
Analyzes tropospheric ozone climatology derived from satellite measurements
in conjunction with meteorological and biomass-burning data. In the latitude
band 2° N-22° S, ozone shows strong seasonal variation that is well
correlated with the biomass burning season over southern tropical South America.
Positive trends over the 14 years analyzed are strongest in the tropical
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