February 28, 2007
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Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 10, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1997
ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS --METHANE
"Methane Emissions Measured Directly from Grazing Livestock in New
Zealand," K.R. Lassey (Natl. Inst. of Water & Atmos. Res., POB
14-901, Kilbirnie, Wellington, New Zealand), M.J. Ulyatt et al.,Atmos.
Environ., 31(18), 2905-2914, Sep. 1997.
Reports the first measurements of methane emissions from grazing sheep,
and among the first from grazing cattle. Daily emissions from sheep varied
by a factor of 1.4 and were unrelated to variations in intake, a factor
that could influence strategies to control emissions.
"Estimation of Methane Emission from Rice Paddies in Mainland China,"
H. Yao (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), Y. Zhuang (Ctr. Eco./Environ.
Sci., Chinese Acad. Sci., POB 2871, Beijing 100085 China; e-mail:
email@example.com), Z.L. Chen, Global Biogeochem. Cycles,
10(4), 641-649, Dec. 1996.
Uses a regional classification, based on agricultural data from over
2,000 county-level records and climatic and laboratory data, to estimate
total emissions from China at 15.3 Tg per year. Single-season rice, found
mainly in the southwest and southeast parts of the country, was the most
important source of rice paddy methane.
"Global Methane Emissions from Minor Anthropogenic Sources and
Biofuel Combustion in Residential Stoves," S.D. Piccot (Southern Res.
Inst., Environ. Div., POB 13825, Res. Triangle Pk. NC 27709), L. Beck et
al.,J. Geophys. Res., 101(D17), 22,757-22,766, Oct. 20,
Estimates country-specific emissions from a diverse group of minor
sources which when combined are substantial, but are usually neglected in
global methane budgets. These include fuel combustion in furnaces, ships,
and manufacturing, and emissions from prescribed burning. Total estimated
emissions are about 40 Tg, about half of which results from residential
fossil and biofuel combustion.
"Global Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies," M. Cao (Dept.
Animal & Plant Sci., POB 601, Univ. Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK),
K. Gregson et al.,Chemosphere, 33(5), 879-897, Sep. 1996.
To improve estimates at regional and global scales, applies a
process-based model that integrates the environmental and biological
factors that determine methane emission. Estimates annual global emission
from rice paddies to be 53 Tg, two thirds of which was emitted between 10°
N and 30° N. Calculated emissions from individual paddies varied
widely, from 5 to 90 gm-2.
"Methane Budget from Paddy Fields in India," D.C. Parashar
(Natl. Physical Lab.--NPL, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Rd., New Delhi 110012,
India), A.P. Mitra et al.,Chemosphere, 33(4), 737-757,
Reports on a major campaign launched in 1991 involving a number of
scientific institutions and universities, coordinated by the National
Physical Laboratory. Estimates methane emissions from Indian rice paddies
to be about 40 Tg per year.
"Estimates of Global Anthropogenic Methane Emissions 1860-1993,"
D.I. Stern, R.K. Kaufmann (Ctr. Energy & Environ. Studies, Boston
Univ., 675 Commonwealth Ave., Boston MA 02215),Chemosphere, 33(1),
159-176, July 1996.
Provides the first time series estimate of global emissions from the
mid-19th century to the present, suitable for use as input to global
climate models. Contrary to prior estimates of past emissions, this one
uses previously published point estimates for the 16th century and the
1980s and early 1990s, and a variety of historical time series of proxy
variables. Estimates that annual anthropogenic emissions have increased
from about 80 million tons per year in 1860 to about 380 million tons in
1990, but there are still large uncertainties.
"Sensitivity of the CH4 Growth Rate to Changes in CH4
Emissions from Natural Gas and Coal," K.S. Law (Ctr. Atmos. Sci.,
Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), E.G. Nisbet, J. Geophys. Res.,
101(D9), 14,387-14,397, June 20, 1996.
Calculations using a 2-D global model of the atmosphere illustrate the
large potential for significantly lowering the growth rate of atmospheric
methane by reducing fossil fuel emissions from coal, and by reducing
leakage from natural gas installations.
"Methane Emissions from Rice Fields Amended with Biogas Slurry and
Farm Yard Manure," G. Debnath (Div. Environ. Sci., Indian Agric. Res.
Inst., New Delhi 100012, India), M.C. Jain et al.,Clim. Change,
33(1), 97-109, May 1996.
Experiments that measured emissions over a several-month period after
fertilizer application indicate that biogas slurry causes fewer emissions
than farm yard manure, without any reduction in grain yield.
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