February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 11, NUMBER 1-2, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1998
Special issue: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies and Measures
in Developing and Transition Countries, Applied Energy, 56(3-4),
1997 (Elsevier Science Pubs.).
Contains papers resulting from activities under the U.S. Country Studies
Program. [For a list of other special journal editions related to Program
activities, see http://www.gcrio.org/CSP/spcialed.html.]
"Feasibility of Large-Scale Biofuel Production: Does an Enlargement
of Scale Change the Picture?" M. Giampietro (Ist. Nazionale della
Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy; e-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org), S. Ulgiati, D. Pimentel,Bioscience, 47(9),
587-600, Oct. 1997.
This critical review of the existing literature concludes that
large-scale biofuel production is not an alternative to the current use of
oil, and is not even an advisable option to cover a significant fraction
of it. The biomass of a future, more highly populated world is likely to
be needed for other purposes, such as food and natural ecosystems.
"Electric Power Deregulation: Will It Mean Dirtier Air?" R.
Begley,Environ. Sci. & Technol., 31(10), 462A-465A,
Because of all the attention being paid in the U.S. to the potential
environmental impacts of electricity industry restructuring, it seems
likely that such impacts will be assessed and considered in final
legislation. But it is uncertain that such considerations will lead to
new, stricter regulations.
"Air Pollution Taxation: An Empirical Survey," D. Cansier (Dept.
Econ., Tübingen Univ., Melanchthonstr. 30, D-72074, Tübingen,
Ger.), R. Krumm,Ecol. Econ., 23(1), 59-70, Oct. 1997.
Examines existing taxation of CO2, SO2 and nitrogen oxide
emissions in the Scandinavian countries, The Netherlands, France and
Japan, comparing political motivations and technical factors. Generalizes
on the concepts of the current practices.
Special issue: Sustainable Management for Climate Change
Mitigation: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases, Mitigation
and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 2(2-3), 1997.
(See New Journal section of Prof. Publications, Global Climate Change
Digest, Dec. 1997.)
"A Method for Permanent Disposal of CO2 in Solid Form,"
D.P. Butt (POB 1663, MS G755, Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos NM 87545),
K.S. Lackner et al., World Resource Review, 9(3), 324-336,
Analyzes the storage of CO2 as magnesium carbonate, which
would have minimal environmental impacts. Initial estimates indicate the
process would add about three cents per kilowatt hour to the cost of
"Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles:
Near-Term vs. Long-Term Technology Options," M.Q. Wang (Ctr.
Transport. Res., Energy Systems Div., Argonne Natl. Lab., Bldg. 362/B215,
Argonne IL 60439),World Resource Review, 9(3), 286-300,
Shows that near-term technologies have small to moderate effects on
vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, while the long-term technologies,
especially those using renewable energy, have far greater potential. R&D
must continue on the latter so they can compete successfully with
conventional vehicle technology.
"Regional vs. Global? Will Strategies for Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide
Emissions from Electric Utilities Increase Carbon Dioxide Emissions?"
J.C. Randolf (Sch. Public & Environ. Affairs, Indiana Univ. SPEA 441,
Bloomington IN 47405), N. Dolsak,World Resource Review, 9(3),
337-358, Sep. 1997.
Examines the CO2 emission implications of two strategies for
reducing SO2 emissions in six midwestern U.S. electric utilities that use
high-sulfur coal: switching to lower sulfur coal, and flue gas
"The Carbon Crop: Continued,"Science, 277(5332),
1589-1590, Sep. 12, 1997.
Letters regarding afforestation; hydrogen energy; and calcerous algae as
a carbon sink.
"Does Environmental Impact Assessment Really Support Technological
Change? Analyzing Alternatives to Coal-Fired Power Stations in Denmark,"
H. Lund (Dept. Development and Planning, Aalborg Univ., Fibigerstraede 11,
DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark), F. Hvelplund,Environ. Impact Assess.
Rev., 17(5), 357-370, Sep. 1997.
Analysis of three case studies in Denmark shows that because
environmental impact assessment is implemented on a regional basis, it
does not support the technological change needed to help reduce CO2
"Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emission Control in Irrigated Maize Production,"
B.D. Wind (Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, POB 679, Loveland
CO 80539), W.W. Wallender,Energy, 22(8), 827-846, Aug.
Gives an economic analysis of total carbon emissions, including those
from fertilizing and irrigation. The most effective means of reducing
fossil fuel carbon emissions at a minimum reduction in gross returns is
increasing the price of nitrogen fertilizer, rather than levying a carbon
"Achieving Ecologically-Motivated Reductions of Canadian CO2
Emissions," L.D.D. Harvey (Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George
St., Toronto ON M5S 3G3, Can.; e-mail: email@example.com), R.
Torrie, R. Skinner, Energy, 22(7), 705-724, July 1997.
Explores various measures by which Canada could achieve CO2
emission reductions of 50% or 75%. They include fundamental changes such
as constant economic output from energy-intensive industries, limiting
light vehicle travel, generation of most electricity from renewable
energy, and the use of hydrogen produced by renewable energy.
"Economic Development, Poverty Reduction and Carbon Emissions in
India," N.S. Murthy (Indira Gandhi Inst. of Develop. Res., General
Vaidya Marg, Goregaon (E), Mumbai-40065, India), M. Panda, J. Parikh,Energy
Economics, 19(3), 327-354, July 1997.
Analyzes energy consumption using an input-output model for 1990, and
for 2005 with alternative energy efficiency programs. Ambitious poverty
reduction programs would increase the growth rate of CO2
emissions about 1%, but energy efficiency programs would nearly
"Assessing Global Impacts at Sector and Project Levels," C.
George (EIA Ctr., Dept. Planning & Landscape, Univ. Manchester, Oxford
Rd., Manchester M13 9PL, UK), Environmental Impact
Assessment Rev., 17(4), 227-247, July 1997.
Discusses ways to insure that a project's impacts are consistent with
global sustainability objectives, using examples relating to greenhouse
gas emissions and habitat loss.
"Simulating Effects of Fire on Gaseous Emissions and Atmospheric
Carbon Fluxes from Coniferous Forest Landscapes," R.E. Keane
(Intermountain Res. Sta., Fire Sci. Lab., USDA Forest Service, POB 8089,
Missoula MT 59807), C.C. Hardy et al.,World Resource Review, 9(2),
177-205, June 1997.
Uses a mechanistic forest succession model to examine long-term trends
in emissions of particles, methane, CO, and CO2 under current,
historical and future fire regimes in Glacier National Park. The model
indicates that temperate and sub-boreal coniferous forest landscapes with
fire tend to respire less carbon, even when carbon emissions from fire are
included. Discusses potential implications for wildland fire management
and the global carbon cycle.
"Research for Developing Carbon Dioxide Disposal and Utilization,"
M. Aresta (Dept. Chem., Univ. Bari, Bari 70126, Italy),World Resource
Review, 9(2), 248-256, June 1997.
Discusses the technology and economics of methods for disposal and
utilization of CO2 produced by fossil fuels. These approaches
deserve research and development in view of the fact that coal is
estimated to be available for the next two or three centuries.
"Possibilities for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical and Subtropical
Soils," N.H. Batjes (Intl. Soil Reference & Info. Ctr., POB 353,
6700 AJ Wageningen, Neth.), W.G. Sombroek,Global Change Biology,
3(2), 161-173, Apr. 1997.
A short review that presents recent data on organic carbon and nitrogen
reserves in soils, and reviews possibilities for long-lasting, enhanced
sequestration of carbon through management of land and water resources. A
current database and a global monitoring system are needed. Enhanced
sequestration is more of social and policy (rather than technology)
"Impacts of Growth and Structural Change on CO2 Emissions
of Developing Countries," X. Han, L. Chatterjee (Boston Univ.,
Boston, Mass.), World Development, 25(3), 395-407, Mar.
Uses a decomposition model to estimate the effects of growth of GDP and
changes in industrial structure, fuel mix and energy efficiency on the CO2
emissions of nine developing countries. Discusses policy implications.
International financial commitments are needed to develop energy-efficient
technology in developing countries.
"Management of Forest Fires to Maximize Carbon Sequestration in
Temperate and Boreal Forests," D.E. Guggenheim (Conservancy of
Southwest Florida, 1450 Merrihue Dr., Naples FL 34102),World Resource
Review, 9(1), 46-57, Mar. 1997.
Uses a forest growth model and three measures of carbon offset
achievement to determine the effects of prescribed burning. Concludes that
using fire as a management tool can be more effective at carbon
sequestration than fire suppression, and that fire management strategies
could be more effective than afforestation.
"The Potential for Increasing Carbon Storage in United States
Unreserved Timberlands by Reducing Forest Fire Frequency: An Economic and
Ecological Analysis," B.L. Sohngen (Dept. Agric. Econ., Ohio State
Univ., 2120 Fyffe Rd., Columbus OH 43210), R.W. Haynes,Clim. Change,
35(2), 179-197, Feb. 1997.
Links the impact of fire damage on forests with an economic model of the
U.S. forest sector. If fire frequency is reduced from its current level,
carbon storage can be increased in unreserved U.S. timberlands over the
period 1990 to 2040.
"Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Amazonian Hydroelectric Reservoirs:
The Example of Brazil's Tucuruí Dam as Compared to Fossil Fuel
Alternatives," P.M. Fearnside (Natl. Inst. for Res. in the AmazonINPA,
CP 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org),Environ.
Conserv., 24(1), 64-75, Mar. 1997.
Uses a tropical case study to illustrate how the impacts of greenhouse
gas emissions from reservoirs should be calculated and compared with those
of alternative energy sources such as fossil fuels. The bulk of emissions
from hydroelectric generation occur early in the lifetime of the project,
while those from fossil fuel generation are constant in proportion to the
power generated. Results show that the selected method of time preference
is a key factor in the outcome. For instance, with low annual discount
rates (1-2%) the global warming impact of the Tucurui Dam is 3-4 times
less than that of fossil fuel, but the situation reverses above a discount
rate of 15%.
"Investigating Strategies to Reduce CO2 Emissions from
the Electricity Sector: The Case of Greece," S. Vassos, A. Vlachou
(Dept. Econ., Athens Univ. of Econ. & Business, 76 Patission St.,
Athens 144 34, Greece), Energy Policy, 25(3), 327-336,
Uses an economic engineering model to explore possibilities on both the
supply side and the demand side, and to estimate the optimal tax required
to achieve emission control.
Special issue: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium
on CO2 Fixation and Efficient Utilization of Energy (Tokyo,
Oct. 1995), Energy, 22(2-3), Feb.-Mar. 1997 (Pergamon
Press). Contains 38 papers; five of wider interest are listed here.
"A Comparison of Greenhouse Mitigation Options," R.A. Reck
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins CO 80523; e-mail:
Reck@ANL.GOV), K.J. Hoag, 115-120. Surveys a wide variety of technological
and market-based options for mitigation. The former include extraction of
CO2 by a solvent during integrated gasification combined cycle
(IGCC) power generation. Concludes that to optimize options for mitigation
of climate change, a complex global strategy is needed that accounts for
both local and regional concerns.
"Methodology and Evaluation of Priorities for Energy and
Environmental Research Projects," T. Kagazyo,..K. Hijikata (Tokyo
Inst. of Technol., 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152, Japan), 121-129.
Uses an analytic process that examines a hierarchy of technological,
environmental and social factors of proposed research projects. Applies
this process to develop short-term to long-term planning strategies for
Japan, less-developed countries, and the world.
"CO2 Mitigation with New Energy Systems," K.
Yamada (Dept. Chem. System Eng., Univ. Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo
113, Japan; e-mail: email@example.com), K. Tanaka, 131-135.
Estimates possible emission reductions in Japan that would result from the
use of solar energy and fuel cells for vehicles and other applications.
"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technology: An Overview of the CO2
Capture and Sequestration Studies and Further Activities of the IEA
Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme," H. Audus (IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D
Prog., CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL52
4RZ, UK; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), 217-221. Summarizes findings
of the first phase of this international collaboration supported by 16
countries and several industrial organizations. Capture of CO2
adds substantially to the cost of power generation; the most appropriate
technology depends on the type of power plant. Storage of CO2
(as in the ocean) is unproved but relatively inexpensive, but subject to
major uncertainties about environmental impacts and security. Utilization
of CO2 for making chemicals has limited potential.
"Mitigation of Global Warming Under Sustainability Constraints,"
H. Ishitani, Y. Miyoshi, R. Matsuhashi (Dept. Geosystem Eng., Univ. Tokyo,
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113, Japan; e-mail:
email@example.com), 223-227. Develops an approach for
analyzing sustainable energy technologies under restrictions on resources
and environmental impact. Evaluates mitigation measures such as disposal
of CO2 and solar power, and shows how sustainability
influences the cost-effectiveness of measures taken.
"Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydropower: The State of Research in
1996," L. Gagnon (Environ. Dept., Hydro-Québec, 75 René
Lévesque W., Montréal PQ H2Z 1A4, Can.), J.F. van de Vate,Energy
Policy, 25(1), 7-13, Jan. 1997.
Reports on findings of a recent expert meeting of the International
Atomic Energy Agency on the assessment of greenhouse gases from
hydropower. Considers both emissions during construction and those
resulting from flooding to create reservoirs. In most cases, hydropower
plants are a good alternative to fossil fuel generation in cold climates,
but this may not be the case in humid tropical climates, where research on
this issue is badly needed.
"Inventory of Strategies for Reducing Anthropogenic Emissions of N2O
and Potential Reductions of Emissions in the Netherlands," C. Kroeze
(Inst. for Environ. & Clim. Res., Wageningen Agric. Univ., POB 9101,
6700 HB Wageningen, Neth.),Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for
Global Change, 1(2), 115-137, 1996.
Gives an overview of strategies that exist to reduce N2O emissions from
all major sources: conventional power plants, fluidized bed combustion,
industrial production of adipic and nitric acids, municipal solid waste
generation, and sewage treatment plants. For the Netherlands, these
strategies could reduce emissions by at least 30% in 2010 relative to
business as usual. Further reductions could be achieved by reducing the
magnitude of activities, such as vehicle use. Describes several promising
technological options that might exist after the year 2000.
"Incentive Aspects of Joint Implementation of Greenhouse Gas
Reduction," A. Michaelowa (Hamburg Inst. for Econ. Res. (HWWA), Neuer
Jungfernstieg 21, 20347 Hamburg, Ger.),Mitigation & Adaptation
Strategies for Global Change, 1(1), 95-108, 1996.
Examines mechanisms needed to induce private investments in joint
implementation projects, such as tax concessions, subsidies, additional
emissions rights under a trading program, or relaxation of regulations.
Finds that tax concessions and subsidies are more efficient than other
"Management Options to Conserve and Sequester Carbon in the
Agricultural Sector of the Former Soviet Union," T.P. Kolchugina
(Dept. Civil/Environ. Eng., Apperson Hall 107, Oregon State Univ.,
Corvallis OR 97331), T.S. Vinson,Mitigation & Adaptation
Strategies for Global Change, 1(2), 197-218, 1996.
Evaluates current C pools and fluxes of the FSU; identifies management
strategies to conserve and sequester C; and examines the impacts of
expected trends in land use and management over the next 20-50 years.
Promising strategies include no-till planting, agroforestry, and
increasing perennial grasses in crop rotations.
"Potentials for Reductions of Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the
Industrial Sector in Transitional Economies A Case Study of
Implementation of Absorption Chiller and Co-generation," J. Remec
(Faculty Mechanical Eng., Univ. Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, Ljubljana, 1000
Slovenia), N. Dolsak,World Resource Review, 8(4), 467-480,
Surveys existing models of adoption of technology by businesses, then
examines the impact of macro-economic and institutional factors and
highlights policy instruments that could facilitate faster diffusion of
"Microalgal Technology for Remediation of CO2 from Power
Plant Flue Gas: A Technoeconomic Perspective," K.L. Kadam
(Biotechnol. Ctr. for Fuels & Chemicals, Natl. Renewable Energy Lab.,
1617 Cole Blvd., Golden CO 80401), J.J. Sheehan, World Resource Review,
8(4), 493-504, Dec. 1996.
Develops a technical-economic model to evaluates the trapping of CO2
by microalgae in ponds. Results look promising and indicate directions for
further development and deployment.
"Global Warming and Developing CountriesThe Possibility of a
Solution by Accelerating Development," Y. Murota (Shonan Econometrics
Inc., 3-23-1 Kataseyama, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251, Japan), K. Ito,Energy
Policy, 24(12), 1061-1077, Dec. 1966.
Shows how, contrary to current opinion, rapid development of
non-industrialized countries might bring about a long-term solution to the
global warming problem. This conclusion is based on a model of development
which calculates by region the world's economic growth, population growth,
energy supply and demand, CO2 emissions and other factors,
through the end of the next century. Steps necessary to realize this
scenario include accelerating development in developing countries,
expediting their shift to renewable energy through carbon taxes, and
transferring energy saving technologies from developed to developing
"Two Decades of Carbon Flux from Forests of the Pacific Northwest
Estimates from a New Modeling Strategy," W.B. Cohen (Forestry Sci.
Lab., USDA Forest Serv., 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis OR 97331), M.E.
Harmon et al.,BioScience, 46(11), 836-843, Nov. 1996.
Describes a strategy being developed for estimating regional carbon
fluxes using remotely sensed and spatial biogeoclimatic data, and a pilot
study in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. that demonstrates its value.
"Joint Implementation: Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gas Offsets,"
N.J. Cutright (Environ. Process, Wisconsin Electric Power Co., 333 W.
Everett St., Milwaukee WI 53203),Environ. Mgmt., 20(6),
913-918, Nov.-Dec. 1996.
Describes a pilot joint implementation project supported by Wisconsin
Electric which involves forest preservation and management in Belize. It
will sequester more than five million tons of CO2 over a
40-year period, will become economically self-sufficient after 10 years,
and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations