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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 11, NUMBER 4, APRIL-MAY 1998
CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY
Principles for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading, Union of
Industrial and Employers' Confederation of Europe (UNICE), Apr. 1998.
Contact Christophe de Callatay (tel: 32 2 237 6511; e-mail:
This position paper from Europe's leading industry trade group calls for
the European Union to take the initiative on setting up an international
trading scheme, and suggests it devise a scheme to link joint
implementation to emissions trading.
The Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change:
Finished and Unfinished Business, H.E. Ott, 15 pp., Mar. 1998.
Available at http://www.wupperinst.org,
or from the author at Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environ. & Energy,
Doeppersberg 19, 42 103 Wuppertal, Ger. (tel: 49 202 2492 246; fax: 49 202
2492 250; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
A legal and political analysis.
Climate Policy and the Economics of Technical Advance: Drawing on
Inventive Activity, R. Kopp, 20 pp., Jan. 1998 (RFF).
Support among policymakers is growing for climate policies that can
reduce emissions at low cost through the use of advanced technology. This
study addresses a number of questions about designing such a policy and
assessing its cost-reducing potential.
The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change: Background, Unresolved Issues
and Next Steps, J.W. Anderson, 35 pp., Jan. 1998 (RFF).
Reviews the scientific evidence and outlines the political history of
climate change; discusses the outcome of the Dec. 1997 climate treaty
Climate Change Policy after Kyoto, R.J. Kopp, R.D. Morgenstern,
M.A. Toman, pp. 4-6 in Resources, Winter 1998 (RFF). Also
available on the RFF Web site.
Outlines several important issues that remain to be resolved before the
Kyoto agreement can be ratified by the U.S. Senate, and implementated.
Achieving emissions reductions will have costs to the economy; a better
understanding of costs and benefits is needed.
Rising Sun, Gathering Winds: Policies to Stabilize the Climate and
Strengthen Economies (Paper 138), C. Flavin, S. Dunn, 1997
A survey of new government policies shows that only The Netherlands,
Denmark and Germany have adopted a mix of actions that is likely to lead
to emission reductions during the next decade. France, Japan, Sweden and
the U.K. have made some progress; the U.S. is in a third tier with Canada
Climate Change: Mobilizing Effort, Dec. 1997, $38 (OECD).
Discusses the principal themes that emerged during a Sep. 1997 OECD
climate change forum. Compares approaches to the problem proposed by
governmental and nongovernmental entities and cites a need for a "new
partnership" on the issue. Presents the often overlooked views of the
finance and insurance industries, among others.
Designing Global Climate Policy: Efficient Markets versus Political
Markets (Policy Brief 188), J.B. Wiener, 7 pp., Dec. 1997 (CSAB).
An international market-based system of tradeable emission allowances
could achieve emission goals at costs savings of at least 50% over
inflexible quantity controls, and would stimulate greater innovation and
diffusion of technologies. It would also provide an incentive for
developing countries to participate. Recommends ways to limit
Climate Protection Policies: Can We Afford To Delay? D. Austin,
Nov. 1997 (WRI).
Early implementation of policies is crucial to limit costs. Clear policy
signals are needed to change the pattern of capital investments and
technological developments, which are now focused on fossil fuel energy,
toward fuels that are not as carbon intensive.
Are Developing Countries Already Doing as Much as Industrialized
Countries to Slow Climate Change?, J. Goldemberg, W. Reid, 6 pp., July
1997 (WRI). Full text available on the WRI Web site.
Contrary to common belief, policy changes and conservation and renewable
energy programs in developing countries are already leading to significant
savings in carbon emissions.
Multinational Strategies Compared: An ETSAP Study, Dec. 1997
(ETSAP). Available at
A comparative assessment of alternative emission reduction strategies
developed by research groups participating in the OECD/IEA Energy
Technology Systems Analysis Program (ETSAP). Flat-rate reductions for all
countries are not technically feasible, because many Annex I countries
cannot reach reductions of 10-20% in the next decades, and others like
India have no technical solutions to even stabilize emissions at the 1990
level. Uniform carbon charges are the most cost-effective, but the least
equitable; the "Norwegian formula" is the most equitable but
much less cost-effective.
International Emissions Trading for Greenhouse Gases, A.
McConville, L. Clarke, Sep. 1997, £40 in IEA Coal Res. member
countries; educational price £20 (IEA Coal Res.)
A briefing paper that examines possible instruments for emissions
control, outlines the principles of trading and experience with trading
schemes, and considers issues related to establishing an international
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Index of Abbreviations