February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1999
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Modelling the Impact of Marine Biogenic Sulphate Aerosols on
Regional Climate in the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, A. J. Gabric et
al.,World Resource Rev. 10 (3), 419-433 (1998).
Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is formed by plankton in the upper ocean and
released to the atmosphere. It is generally regarded as a major nucleator
for cloud water droplets. The Southern Ocean does not produce much of this
trace gas, but global warming could change that. A general circulation
model was used to investigate the effects of warming on DMS production by
the Southern Ocean. It indicated that sea-surface temperature would
increase 4° C, wind speed would decrease 3%, DMS flux from the ocean
to the atmosphere would increase 2 to 8%, cloud-condensation nuclei
concentration would increase 2 to 4%, and the resultant increased
cloudiness would decrease radiative forcing 0.29 W/in.2 (a negative
feedback of about 8%).
Climate Change in the XX Century and Cold Stress in Russia, V.
V. Vinogradova,World Resource Rev. 10 (4), 559-568 (1998).
Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, and wet cooling were calculated for
Russia for 1951-1960, a general cooling period, and for 1981-1990, a
general warming period. These values were mapped over the Russian
territory to determine the extent and distribution of cold stress on the
population. Cold stress was seen to increase because of strengthened wind
speed in northern and eastern Russia from 1951 to 1960. Scenarios of
future climate warming would lead to decreased cold stress in the western
regions of Russia with a decrease in absolute discomfort of 20%.
Climate Warming and Sustainable Development of Food Production in
China, Wang Futang and Wang Shili, World Resource Rev. 10
(4), 577-583 (1998).
Climate-change scenarios predict temperature increases of 0.2 and 1.4°
C, respectively, for 2000 and 2050, and an increase in precipitation of
4.2% by 2050. Such climate changes would increase the areas of
multicropping and shift them northward, make conditions in northern China
favorable for agriculture, and make conditions in major areas in eastern
China unfavorable for agriculture. Three mitigative strategies are
proposed: (1) control deforestation, reclamation, combustion of residual
agricultural biomass, and unsuitable conversion of forests to agriculture;
(2) select and breed new crop varieties with higher drought resistance,
greater photosynthetic capacity, lower respiration rates, and less
sensitivity to the photoperiod; and (3) convert areas now under
cultivation to rangelands and forests.
Long-Term Cloud Droplet Measurements for Climate-Change Studies,
E. E. Hindman and R. D. Borys,World Resource Rev. 10 (4),
Cloud-droplet spectra, cloud-droplet pH, and in-cloud aerosol
concentrations were measured for 14 winters on a mountaintop in northern
Colorado. The measurements revealed a decrease in the cloud-droplet number
concentrations, an increase in pH, and no significant trend in in-cloud
aerosol concentrations, which is counter to the aerosol-effect predictions
for a warmer, moister climate.
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