February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
SOCIAL-SCIENCE ISSUES (JUNE 1999)
Chinas Key Role in Climate Protection, W. Bach and
S. Fiebig, Energy, 23 (4), 253-270 (1998).
An energy analysis of China reveals that it has a 75% dependence on
coal, has a high energy intensity, enjoys low energy prices, and is the
worlds second largest CO2 emitter. Under business-as-usual
conditions, Chinas 225 Gt of recoverable fossil fuels will be
released to the atmosphere by 2040, producing adverse climatic and
ecological effects. Under the Kyoto Protocol, China is to reduce its CO2
emissions by 36%. A microengineering approach indicates that 13 specific
measures would reduce emissions by 4600 Mt over ten years. The incremental
costs range from $0.09/ton of CO2 for coal-saving stoves to $18.55/ton of
CO2 for solar cookers. The total cost to China for implementing these
changes would be about $2 billion/year, or about 0.4% of the Chinese GDP.
Energy Use and CO2 Emissions for Mexicos Cement Industry,
C. Sheinbaum and L. Ozawa, Energy, 23 (9), 725-732 (1998).
The energy use and CO2 emissions of Mexicos cement industry were
analyzed to estimate the roles that fuel intensity, clinker activity, the
cement/clinker ratio, and alternative fuels play (or could play) in the
industrys energy budget. The findings indicate that all factors
except clinker activity could be altered to decrease fuel use. CO2
emissions could be reduced by changes in energy intensity and in the
Projected Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the US
Residential Sector, J. G. Koomey et al., Energy, 24
(1), 69-84 (1999).
An analysis of the potential energy, cost, and carbon savings of
residential-appliance energy-efficiency standards showed that those
standards will save consumers about $30 billion between 1990 and 2010 and
that each dollar expended by the federal government in implementing them
will produce $165 in savings. The net benefit to cost ratio for these
measures in the United States is 3.5, and carbon emissions will be reduced
by about 9 Mt each year between 2000 and 2010.
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