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Updated 7 February, 2004

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Addressing the Challenge of Global Climate Change  2003
Paula J. Dobriansky, Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs: "Therefore it is our intention to implement policies that will foster these technology-based solutions -- that is the way we will address the challenge of global climate change. Significantly, we also believe that climate change should not be pursued in isolation, but should be handled as an integral part of a broad strategic paradigm of sustainable development, which features a balanced mix of environmentally sound, pro-economic growth policies. At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and at the COP-8 meeting last year in New Delhi, we found strong and growing support for this position among developing countries." (64KB PDF file)
 
 
Aquatic ecosystems: effects of solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors  2002
Aquatic ecosystems are a key component of the Earth's biosphere. A large number of studies document substantial impact of solar UV radiation on individual species, yet considerable uncertainty remains with respect to assessing impacts on ecosystems. Several studies indicate that the impact of increased UV radiation appears relatively low when considering overall ecosystem response, while, in contrast, effects on individual species show considerable responses. Ecosystem response to climate variability incorporates both synergistic and antagonistic processes with respect to UV-related effects, significantly complicating understanding and prediction at the ecosystem level. The impact of climate variability on UV-related e.ects often becomes manifest via indirect effects such as reduction in sea ice, changes in water column bio-optical characteristics, changes in cloud cover and shifts in oceanographic biogeochemical provinces. (237KB PDF file)
 
 
Arctic Ocean Sciences Board   
The Arctic Ocean Sciences Board (AOSB) was established in May, 1984 to fill a recognized need to coordinate the priorities and programs of countries and institutions engaged in research in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. The long-term mission of the AOSB is to facilitate Arctic Ocean research by the support of multinational and multidisciplinary natural science and engineering programs.
 
 
Australian Greenhouse Office   
The Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) is the world's first government agency dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions. It was established in 1998 as a separate agency within the environment portfolio to provide a whole of government approach to greenhouse matters.
 
 
Austrian Council on Climate Change   
no description available
 
 
Carbon Sequestration - The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy   
This website provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program . A summary of the program areas, links to the various sequestration centers and online DOE Carbon Sequestration project data sheets can be found on this site.
 
 
Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change (CPACC)   
The project's overall objective is to support Caribbean countries in preparing to cope with the adverse effects of global climate change (GCC), particularly sea level rise, in coastal and marine areas through vulnerability assessment, adaptation planning, and capacity building linked to adaptation planning. The Project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), implemented by the World Bank and executed by the Organisation of American States. The project is coordinated in the Caribbean through the Regional Project Implementation Unit (RPIU), which was established by the UWI Centre for Environment and Development (UWICED). A Policy Advisory Committee chaired by CARICOM, provides overall guidance for implementation of activities.
 
 
Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface  2002
Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identi.ed. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. (510KB PDFD file)
 
 
Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion  2003
Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOX (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone concentration can have a significant impact on human health and the environment. (209 KB PDF file)
 
 
CODATA - Committee on Data for Science and Technology   
The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) is an interdisciplinary Scientific Committee of the International Council for Science (ICSU) who's mission is to help foster and advance science and technology through developing and sharing knowledge about data and the activities that work with data. These activities include: (1) improving the quality and accessibility of data, as well as the methods by which data are acquired, managed, analyzed and evaluated, (2) facilitating international cooperation among those collecting, organizing and using data, (3) promoting an increased awareness in the scientific and technical community of the importance of these activities, and (4) data access and intellectual property issues.
 
 
Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)   
This program has been terminated, however, there will be a next climate change program in the Netherlands, and the website still contains newsletters, publications, descriptions of individual research projects and results, etc.
 
 
Effects of climate change and UV-B on materials  2002
The outdoor service life of common plastic materials is limited by their susceptibility to solar ultraviolet radiation. Of the solar wavelengths the UV-B component is particularly efficient in bringing about photodamage in synthetic and naturally occurring materials. This is particularly true of plastics, rubber and wood used in the building and agricultural industries. Any depletion in the stratospheric ozone layer and resulting increase in the UV-B component of terrestrial sunlight will therefore tend to decrease the service life of these materials.
 
 
Eighteen questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment  2002
This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel (http://www.gcrio.org/OnLnDoc/pdf/unepSciQandA.pdf) contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel.
 
 
Environment Australia   
Environment Australia advises the Commonwealth Government on policies and programs for the protection and conservation of the environment, including both natural and cultural heritage places. It also manages a number of major programs, the most significant of which come under the umbrella of the Natural Heritage Trust. These programs include Bushcare, Coasts and Clean Seas, the Endangered Species Program and Waterwatch. Environment Australia also administers environmental laws, including the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and a range of other Acts. It is also responsible for Australia's participation in a number of international environmental agreements.
 
 
European Environment Agency (EEA)   
The EEA aims to support sustainable development and to help achieve significant and measurable improvement in Europe's environment through the provision of timely, targeted, relevant and reliable information to policy making agents and the public.
 
 
FIGARE: Finnish Global Change Research Programme   
Finnish Global Change Research Programme FIGARE is a three-year programme (1999-2002) supporting and encouraging high-quality research in the natural sciences, the social sciences, economics and technology with the objective to analyze and understand the changes taking place in the global system.
 
 
German Advisory Council on Global Change   
Set up by the Federal Government as an independent advisory body, the Council submits a report to the Federal Government containing recommendations for research and further action to combat global problems in the field of environment and development.
 
 
Health effects from stratospheric ozone depletion and interactions with climate change  2002
The potential health effects of elevated levels of ambient UV-B radiation are diverse, and it is difficult to quantify the risks, especially as they are likely to be considerably modified by human behaviour. Nevertheless epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that UV radiation is a definite risk factor for certain types of cataract, with peak efficacy in the UV-B waveband. The causal link between squamous cell carcinoma and cumulative solar UV exposure has been well established. New findings regarding the genetic basis of skin cancer, including studies on genetically modified mice, have confirmed the epidemiological evidence that UV radiation contributes to the formation of basal cell carcinomas and cutaneous melanomas. For the latter, animal models have demonstrated that UV exposure at a very young age is more detrimental than exposure in adulthood. Although suppression of certain immune responses has been recognised following UV exposure, the impact of this suppression on the control of infectious and autoimmune diseases is largely unknown. However, studies on several microbial infections have indicated significant consequences in terms of symptoms or reactivation of disease. The possibility that the immune response to vaccination could be depressed by UV-B exposure is of considerable concern. Newly emerging possibilities regarding interactions between ozone depletion and global climate change further complicate the risk assessments for human health but might result in an increased incidence of cataracts and skin cancer, plus alterations in the patterns of certain categories of infectious and other diseases.
 
 
Interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on biogeochemical cycles  2002
The effects of ozone depletion on global biogeochemical cycles, via increased UV-B radiation at the Earth¿s surface, have continued to be documented over the past 4 years. In this report we also document various effects of UV-B that interact with global climate change because the detailed interactions between ozone depletion and climate change are central to the prediction and evaluation of future Earth environmental conditions.
 
 
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (of UNESCO) (IOC)   
The work of the IOC, over the three decades since its inception, has focused on promoting marine scientific investigations and related ocean services, with a view to learning more about the nature and resources of the oceans. Current program areas include: IOC Harmful Algal Bloom Programme, Ocean Ecosystems and Marine Environmental Protection, Science for Integrated Coastal Management (ICAM), Oceans and Climate, Data and Information Exchange Programmes, and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).
 
 
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)   
The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Its role is to assess the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. It does not carry out research nor does it monitor climate related data or other relevant parameters. It bases its assessment mainly on peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature.
 
 
International Arctic Research Center (IARC)   
IARC research focuses on global climate change and arctic phenomena, addressing questions such as whether climate change as occurring as predicted by global climate models, and whether or not such changes are due to natural or manmade causes.
 
 
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)   
IGBP's scientific objective is to describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the total Earth System, the unique environment that it provides for life, the changes that are occurring in this system, and the manner in which they are influenced by human actions. They work in close collaboration with the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), and DIVERSITAS, an international programme of biodiversity science.
 
 
International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)   
IHDP is an international, interdisciplinary and non-governmental research program, who's aim is to describe, analyze and understand the human dimensions of global environmental change. The program is designed around the objectives of research, capacity building and networking.
 
 
Summary of the Ninth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change  2003
The ninth Conference of the Parties (COP-9) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the nineteenth sessions of the COP's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) were held at the Fiera Milan Congress Center in Milan, Italy, from 1-12 December 2003. (388KB PDF file)
 
 
Swiss Academy of Sciences: ProClim - Forum for Climate and Global Change   
ProClim is the Swiss forum for climate and global change issues. it seeks to facilitate both integrated research activities and the necessary linkages among scientists, policy-makers and the public at home and abroad.
 
 
Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors  2003
Based on research to date, we can state some expectations about terrestrial ecosystem response as several elements of global climate change develop in coming decades. Higher plant species will vary considerably in their response to elevated UV-B radiation, but the most common general e.ects are reductions in height of plants, decreased shoot mass if ozone reduction is severe, increased quantities of some phenolics in plant tissues and, perhaps, reductions in foliage area. In some cases, the common growth responses may be lessened by increasing CO2 concentrations. However, changes in chemistry of plant tissues will generally not be reversed by elevated CO2. Among other things, changes in plant tissue chemistry induced by enhanced UV-B may reduce consumption of plant tissues by insects and other herbivores, although occasionally consumption may be increased. Pathogen attack on plants may be increased or decreased as a consequence of elevated UV-B, in combination with other climatic changes. This may be a.ected both by alterations in plant chemistry and direct damage to some pathogens. Water limitation may decrease the sensitivity of some agricultural plants to UV-B, but for vegetation in other habitats, this may not apply. With global warming, the repair of some types of UV damage may be improved, but several other interactions between warming and enhanced UV-B may occur. For example, even though warming may lead to fewer killing frosts, with enhanced UV-B and elevated CO2 levels, some plant species may have increased sensitivity to frost damage. (230KB PDF file)
 
 
U.S. Country Studies Home Page  1999
Through the U.S. Country Studies Program, the U.S. Government has been providing technical and financial support to 56 developing countries and countries with economies in transition to assist them in conducting climate change studies. The studies have enabled these countries to develop inventories of their anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, assess their vulnerabilities to climate change, and evaluate response strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The program was announced by the President prior to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.
 
 
U.S. Pursuing Clean Coal Projects with Other Countries  2003
U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham says the United States is moving ahead in an unprecedented international effort to make clean energy the cornerstone of economic growth, improved health and closer ties among nations. (47KB PDF file)
 
 
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)   
UNEP works to encourage sustainable development through sound environmental practices everywhere. Its activities cover a wide range of issues, from atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, the promotion of environmental science and information, to an early warning and emergency response capacity to deal with environmental disasters and emergencies.
 
 
US-India Technology Cooperation on Global Climate Change  2002
A new model for partnership between developed and developing countries worldwide is evolving to address climate change concerns. The US-India Technology Cooperation on Global Climate Change side event on October 31st at the UNFCCC COP-8 provides an important forum to highlight US-India collaboration on protecting the global environment. (181KB PDF file)
 
 
World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)   
The objectives of the WCRP program are to develop the fundamental scientific understanding of the physical climate system and climate processes needed to determine to what extent climate can be predicted and the extent of human influence on climate.
 
 

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