National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Areas of Global Change Research. NASA research efforts in global change involve space-based studies of the Earth as an integrated system, including research and satellite programs studying atmospheric ozone, ocean surface winds, tropical precipitation, and the Earth's upper atmosphere. The space-based activity complements ongoing ground-based research programs in the observation, understanding, and modeling of radiation, climate dynamics, and hydrology; ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemical cycles; atmospheric chemistry; solid Earth science; and the processing, archiving, retrieval, dissemination, and use of global change data. The focus is Earth system science, which involves interdisciplinary research and coupled modeling. Development of algorithms for retrieval of the information content of space-based, remotely sensed observations is carried out as part of the flight mission.

NASA Program Title FY97 FY98 FY99
ES Airborne Science Program 19.0 20.7 20.1
ES Applications Research Program 2.9 18.6a 4.6
ES Atmospheric Chemical Modeling 6.5 6.5 6.5
ES Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing 5.2 5.3 5.3
ES Biological Oceanography 4.4 4.8 4.8
ES Ecological Processes 15.7 16.4 16.4
ES EOS Science 37.5 37.4 40.9
ES Geodynamics and Geopotential Fields 13.5 13.6 13.6
ES Geology 4.4 5.3 5.3
ES Global Data Integration and Validation 3.7 3.8 3.8
ES Global Modeling and Analysis Program 6.2 6.2 6.2
ES GLOBE 5.0 5.0 5.0
ES Interdisciplinary Research and Analysis 18.1 20.4 29.2
ES Land Cover and Use Change 8.7 6.3 6.3
ES Land Surface Hydrology 5.1 5.1 5.1
ES Mission Analysis Program 32.9 40.0 42.0
ES Natural Hazards Program 4.2 4.3 4.3
ES Ocean Color Data Purchase/SeaWiFS 2.4 2.5 2.5
ES Pathfinder Science Studies 6.6 3.4 3.5
ES Physical Oceanography and Ocean Modeling 7.9 7.5 7.5
ES Polar Programs 4.5 5.5 5.5
ES Radiation Science Program 6.6 7.7 7.7
ES Stratospheric Chemistry 17.1 17.2 17.2
ES Tropical Rainfall Measurement Science 6.1 0.4 0.0
ES Tropospheric Chemistry 7.8 8.8 9.8
ES Uncrewed Aerial Vehicle Science 0.3 1.9 2.0
NASA Global Change Science Program 252.3 274.6 275.1
ES Advanced Geostationary Studies 2.0 3.0 0.0
ES Commercial Remote Sensing 19.0 21.5 24.8
ES Data Purchase 50.0 0.0 0.0
ES Earth Systems Science Pathfinder 14.0 33.9 70.0
ES EOS Data and Information Systems 234.6 209.9 256.6
ES EOS Flight Development 437.9 550.8 505.0
ES EOS Special Spacecraft 72.5 101.2 152.1
ES HPCC Earth Remote Sensing 28.3 18.3 14.5
ES Information Systems 8.5 4.3 6.1
ES LANDSAT 78.8 52.6 2.0
ES Launch Services 84.7 34.8 0.0
ES Lewis & Clark Land Imaging Spacecraft 12.0 3.0 5.0
ES Light SAR 12.0 0.0 5.0
ES Mission Operations 38.2 47.7 49.9
ES Payloads and Instrument Development 2.6 2.6 1.0
ES Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer 3.9 8.2 4.9
ES Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 17.3 0.9 0.0
NASA Global Change Hardware Development 1116.3 1092.7 1096.9
Total 1368.6 1367.3
President's Request 1402.1 1417.3b 1372.0
aFunded above budget request (Congressional add-on).
bIncludes$50M to be transferred to the International Space Station, if necessary.
ES Earth Science (formerly Mission to Planet Earth)

FY99 Program Highlights. The overall goal of the Earth Science (ES) program (formerly Mission to Planet Earth) is to understand the Earth system and the effects of natural and human- induced changes on the global environment. To preserve and improve the Earth's environment for future generations, policies and decisions worldwide should have the strongest possible scientific basis. The vantage point of space provides information that is obtainable in no other way about the Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, and biota, as well as the impact of humans on the Earth system.

The science and observations of NASA's ES program are becoming increasingly important as the demand for economic progress by the growing global population drives policies that encourage natural resource depletion and rapidly increasing emissions of environmental pollutants. In addition, remote sensing has the potential to improve dramatically crop and forest yield predictions, seasonal and interannual climate forecasts, urban planning, mineral exploration, and many other activities of socioeconomic importance. In concert with the global change research community, the ES program is utilizing space to lead the development of knowledge required to support the complex national and international policy decisions that lie ahead.

As was the case last year, this edition of Our Changing Planet  divides the ES budget into two main components: 1) Scientific research costs, and 2) the costs associated with satellite, aircraft, and balloon measurements, operations, and data processing and distribution (including mission costs such as launch, flight, instrument and technology development, fabrication assembly, integration, and testing, as well as mission operation support).

ES has adopted an evolutionary approach to fulfilling its mission and goals. NASA completed a comprehensive review of the entire ES enterprise. The goal was to enable a focus on near-term science and associated applications; explicit provisions for new technology infusion; reduction in life-cycle cost of the EOS program; provision of new science opportunities through smaller, quicker and less expensive missions; and closer participation with other Federal agencies, commercial firms, and international partners. This approach was endorsed by the National Research Council (NRC) through its Board on Sustainable Development.

In 1997, NASA conducted its first Biennial Review of ES, focusing on the following five key areas: Program balance and the restoration of Research and Analysis (R&A;) funding; EOSDIS Core System; CHEM-1 mission architecture; technology infusion strategy; and implementation of the program after 2002. The first three areas address issues remaining in the time frame of the first EOS series. The latter two look to the future, and enable a fundamentally different and vastly more flexible means of planning and implementing Earth system science missions. A Science Implementation Plan to be produced in 1998 will lay out a strategy and priorities for implementing the program.

Related Research. NASA includes all research in support of global change within the focused research program.

Mapping of Budget Request to Appropriations Legislation. In the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill, National Aeronautics and Space Administration USGCRP activities are funded under the NASA section of Title III-Independent Agencies, within the Science, Aeronautics, and Technology account. Within this account, Appropriations Committee reports specify funding for the Earth Science program, which is the NASA contribution to the USGCRP.