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APPENDIX B

 National Science Foundation 

    Areas of Global Change Research. NSF global change research programs support research and related activities that advance fundamental understanding of dynamic physical, biological, and socioeconomic systems as well as interactions among those systems. In addition to research on Earth system processes and the consequences of changes in those systems, NSF programs facilitate data acquisition and data management activities necessary for basic research on global change, promote the enhancement of modeling designed to improve representations of Earth system interactions, and develop advanced analytic methods to facilitate fundamental research. NSF also supports fundamental research on the general processes used by governments and other organizations to identify and evaluate different types of policies for mitigation, adaptation, and other responses to changing global environmental conditions.

    FY 2000 Program Highlights. During FY 2000, NSF will continue to support research and related activities across all of its global environmental programs. A significant share of the agency’s efforts will focus on continuation of major international collaborative field programs. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) have entered the analysis and synthesis phase of data gathered during previous years. As with other major international field programs, WOCE and JGOFS analyses and syntheses activities will be linked with data-assimilation and modeling activities. As WOCE and JGOFS complete the synthesis phase resources will be directed to other aspects of climate research (e.g. CLIVAR) and to carbon cycling studies.

    The Ocean Observations, Data Assimilation, and Modeling Program (OODAM) will address the pressing need for the integration of products of the major global ocean field programs as they approach the end of their experimental observational phases. This activity will seek to develop global- and regional-scale coupled ocean predictive models. This will require, in turn, data assimilation research and identification of long-term observations necessary to support these activities. This activity will hopefully be expanded through the National Oceanographic Partnership Program.

    NSF will continue to support the development, testing, and application of climate systems models and methods to improve model representations of related Earth system processes. In addition to continuing to develop and apply the community-use Climate System Model (CSM) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NSF will continue to make available advanced computational facilities to a wide range of scientists for USGCRP-sponsored Earth system modeling. NSF also will maintain support for research on fundamental understandings of human contributions and responses to global change.

    Related Research. In addition to focused global change research, NSF conducts contributing research on many topics, including laboratory and field studies of the atmosphere and the factors that affect it; the physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of ocean waters; the composition, structure, and history of ocean floors; geophysical, hydrological, geological, and geochemical processes operating at and below the Earth’s surface; the generation, transport, and fate of chemicals in natural systems; global environmental history; and data management for scientific research and modeling.

    Many NSF-sponsored research projects examine interactions that link ecosystems and human activities with other factors, of which climate variability and change are only one specific set. As a result, much of NSF’s support for research that relates to the consequences of global change does not focus specifically on global change but falls into the "contributing research" category instead. For example, data-collection activities and field experiments at many of the nearly two dozen Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites provide insights into the ways that different ecosystems respond to short- and longer term changes in climate, but they provide equally valuable perspectives on ecological responses to other kinds of environmental changes. In a similar way, NSF provides support for research projects that examine economic, cultural, and behavioral responses to different conditions that include, but are not restricted to, global environmental change. Especially noteworthy are studies of the ways that people and institutions anticipate and respond to risks, because risk assessment and risk management invariably entails making trade-offs among a large number of factors.

    Mapping of Budget Request to Appropriations Legislation. In the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill, National Science Foundation USGCRP activities are funded under the NSF section of Title III-Independent Agencies, within the NSF Research and Related Expenses account.


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