Changes in near-surface temperature (in°C, multiply by 1.8 for °F) from about 1860 through 1995 for the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, and the globe. The values shown are departures from the average temperature for the period 1961 to 1990_the global average temperature being about 15°C (about 59°F). The figure shows annual departures and a 10-year filter designed to suppress short-term variations. Observations making up this record are drawn from land stations and ship records. For the Northern Hemisphere and for the globe, 1995 was the warmest year of the record, and proxy indicators such as tree rings suggest this century is the warmest since at least 1400 AD. The figure is courtesy of P. Jones, University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK.