Organization: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Research Title: Earth Observing System (EOS) Flights (AM, PM, CHEM)

Funding Level (millions of dollars):

FY94 254.6
FY95 415.0
FY96 384.8

Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) Component:
(a) Subcommittee: Global Change Research Subcommittee (100%) Task Group on Data and Information Management
(b) Environmental Issue: Climate change (20%), Natural Variability (20%), Large-scale changes in land-use (20%) Large-scale changes in ocean ecosystems (20%), Global changes (20%)
(c) Research Activity: System structure and function: Observations (100%)

Organizational Component:
Flight Systems Division
Office of Mission to Planet Earth
NASA Headquarters
Washington, DC 20546

Point of Contact:
Shahib Habib
Phone: 202-358-0536

Research Goals:
To build, integrate, launch, operate and produce science data products routinely for the science community at large for the AM, PM, and CHEM missions.

Research Description:
Planned for launch in June 1998, the EOS-AM1 flight includes five instruments to be placed into a polar, sun-synchronous, 705-km orbit by an IELV. The payload consists of ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS, and MOPITT. EOS-AM1 will have an equatorial crossing time of 10:30 a.m., when daily cloud cover is typically at a minimum over land such that surface features can be more easily observed. The instrument complement is intended to obtain information about the physical and radiative properties of clouds (ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS); air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water (ASTER, MISR, MODIS); vertical profiles of important greenhouse gasses (MOPITT); and volcanology (ASTER, MISR, MODIS).

The EOS-PM satellite series will include six instruments to be placed into a polar, sun-synchronous, 705-km orbit. The EOS-PM instrument complements will be integrated onto a common spacecraft bus with the spacecraft boosted into orbit by an IELV. The payload consists of AIRS, AMSU, CERES, MHS, MIMR, and MODIS. The EOS- PM series spacecraft will have an afternoon crossing time to enhance collection of meteorological data by the atmospheric sounders onboard. The instrument complement is designed to provide information on cloud formation, precipitation, and radiative properties (AIRS, AMSU, CERES, MHS, MODIS); air-sea fluxes of energy, carbon and moisture (AIRS, AMSU, MHS, MIMR, MODIS); and sea-ice extent (MIMR, MODIS). The EOS-CHEM instrument complement consists of HIRDLS, MLS, TES and ODUS, Japanese instrument. This payload will be launched on IELVs to 705-km, sun-synchronous orbits. The first launch is slated for 2002. EOS-CHEM instruments will provide measurements atmospheric aerosols, ozone, and water vapor; atmospheric trace gases (HIRDLS); and ozone, based on chlorine monoxide, bromine oxide, and water vapor.

Program Interfaces:
The EOS flight programs have established formal interfaces with four distinct organizations. In support of foreign instrument development intended for flight on the EOS spacecraft, NASA has developed draft MOU's and project level working agreements with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) , the European Space Agency (ESA), and with the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). These agreements specify the respective roles and responsibilities for the development, integration, flight, and data product generation related to the foreign instrument contributed to the EOS flight programs. NASA has established broad interfaces with the scientific community at large in order to assure that instrument, spacecraft, ground system, and data produce algorithmic development will meet the scientific objectives of the flight programs. These interfaces consist of the Principle Investigators, Interdisciplinary Investigators, and International Scientists all embodied in an official Science Working Group (SWG). In areas of mutual and compatible interests, NASA has been working with NOAA to identify possible opportunities where new instrument development, together with their algorithmic implementation, has potential for efficient migration to operational use by the NOAA. These interfaces are being established as part of ongoing science and program development meetings as well as an integral part of the convergence efforts.

Program Milestones:
The first of the AM Flights, AM-1 is progressing through its development phase without any significant issues. Currently the spacecraft manufacturer, MMC, is undergoing sub-system level CDR in preparation for a full scale, systems level CDR in January, 1995. Two of the AM-1 Instruments, MODIS and CERES, have recently completed their CDR's. The three remaining instruments have completed their PDR and are currently on schedule for their CDR' in December, 1994 and January, 1995. To date all of the AM-1 effort remains on schedule for a June 1998 launch. The remaining flights, PM and CHEM, are under an SEB procurement effort with the Phase C/D RFP scheduled for release in the late fall. Currently the complete procurement has been presented to the agency PMC and is currently under advisement for the Administrators recommendation for release to industry.

Policy Payoffs:
A better understanding of the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change.